Optimizing ultraviolet B radiation exposure to prevent vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women in the tropical zone: report from cohort study on vitamin D status and its impact during pregnancy in Indonesia.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Jun 21;19(1):209. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2306-7.
Judistiani RTD1,2, Nirmala SA3,4, Rahmawati M5, Ghrahani R4,6,7, Natalia YA3, Sugianli AK7,8, Indrati AR4,7,8, Suwarsa O4,7,9, Setiabudiawan B4,6,7.
- This study appears to incorrectly assume that 30 ng of vitamin D is enough
- This study appears to incorrectly assume that the vitamin D generated does not vary with location on the body
- Can get Vitamiin D thru a hijab if a UV transparent cloth is used
- Can get filter out the heat and brightness of the sun with a mirrored window which only transmits UVB
- see Vitamin D from the sun thru a special window or heat shield
- Have hijiab off indoors - while private - 10 minutes might be enough
- One hour of summer sun on the skin would most likely cause DNA damage/Cancer
- Ultraviolet light (like Vitamin D) is great, especially while pregnant – Aug 2018
- Overview Middle East and vitamin D includes the following
- The Burka is much worse than Hijab
Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy carries potential threat to fetal well being. Natural conversion of vitamin D in the skin can be facilitated by direct ultra violet B (UVB) radiation, but the effect is reduced by wearing umbrellas, clothes, or sunblock cream. Muslim women wear hijab that allows only face and hands to be seen. With increasing proportion of muslim women wearing hijab and the lack of vitamin D fortification and fish consumption in Indonesia, it poses a problem for vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women. This study aimed at finding the best timing of UVB exposure and the duration of exposure which can be suggested to prevent vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women, for those wearing hijab or not.
This study recruited 304 pregnant women in the first trimester, 75-76 women from 4 cities of the most populated province, West Java, Indonesia which represented 70-80% percent of pregnancy per year. A 3-day notes on duration, time and type of outdoor activity and the clothing wore by the women were collected. UVB intensity radiation were obtained. Calculation on body surface area exposed to direct UVB radiation and UVB radiation intensity were done. Measurement of vitamin D level in sera were done on the same week.
The median of maternal sera vitamin D level was 13.6 ng/mL and the mean exposed area was around 0.48 m2 or 18.59% of total body surface area. Radiation intensity reached its peak around 10.00 and 13.00, but the mean duration of exposure to UVB during this window was lower than expected. Significant correlation was found between maternal sera vitamin D level and exposed body surface area (r = 0.36, p < 0.002) or percentage of exposed body surface (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) and radiation intensity (r = 0.15, p = 0.029). Further analysis showed that duration of exposure to UVB should be longer for pregnant women wearing hijab as compared to women without hijab.
This study suggested that the best timing to get UVB exposure was between 10.00-13.00, with longer duration for women wearing hijab (64.5 vs 37.5 min) of continuous exposure per day.