Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb 2.
Nikooyeh B, Neyestani TR, Farvid M, Alavi-Majd H, Houshiarrad A, Kalayi A, Shariatzadeh N, Gharavi A, Heravifard S, Tayebinejad N, Salekzamani S, Zahedirad M.
Laboratory of Nutrition Research, National Research Institute and Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, and the Department of Biostatistics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
BACKGROUND: Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D have been associated with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of daily intake of vitamin D- or vitamin D(3) + calcium-fortified yogurt drink on glycemic status in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
DESIGN: Ninety diabetic subjects were randomly allocated to 3 groups to consume plain yogurt drink (PY; containing no vitamin D and 150 mg Ca/250 mL), vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (DY; containing 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 150 mg Ca/250 mL), or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink (DCY; containing 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 250 mg Ca/250 mL) twice per day for 12 wk. Fasting serum glucose (FSG), glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum lipid profile, and percentage fat mass (FM) were assessed before (baseline) and after the intervention.
RESULTS: In both the DY and DCY groups, mean serum 25(OH)D(3) improved (+32.8 ± 28.4 and +28.8 ± 16.1 nmol/L, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), but FSG -12.9 ± 33.7 mg/dL (P = 0.015) and -9.6 ± 46.9 mg/dL (P = 0.035), respectively, Hb A(1c) -0.4 ± 1.2% (P < 0.001) and -0.4 ± 1.9% (P < 0.001), respectively, HOMA-IR -0.6 ± 1.4 (P = 0.001) and -0.6 ± 3.2 (P < 0.001), respectively, waist circumference (-3.6 ± 2.7 and -2.9 ± 3.3, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and body mass index in kg/m(2); -0.9 ± 0.6 (P < 0.001) and -0.4 ± 0.7 (P = 0.005), respectively decreased significantly more than in the PY group. An inverse correlation was observed between changes in serum 25(OH)D(3) and FSG (r = -0.208, P = 0.049), FM (r = -0.219, P = 0.038), and HOMA-IR (r = -0.219, P = 0.005).
CONCLUSION: Daily intake of a vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink, either with or without added calcium, improved glycemic status in T2D patients. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01229891.
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