Recommended intakes of vitamin D to optimise health, associated circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and dosing regimens to treat deficiency: workshop report and overview of current literature.
J Nutr Sci. 2015 May 25;4:e23. doi: 10.1017/jns.2015.10. eCollection 2015.
Balvers MG1, Brouwer-Brolsma EM2, Endenburg S3, de Groot LC2, Kok FJ2, Gunnewiek JK3.
1Clinical Chemistry and Haematology Laboratory , Gelderse Vallei Hospital , PO Box 9025 , 6710 HN , Ede , the Netherlands ; Division of Human Nutrition , Wageningen University , PO Box 8129 , 6700 EV Wageningen , the Netherlands.
2Division of Human Nutrition , Wageningen University , PO Box 8129 , 6700 EV Wageningen , the Netherlands.
3Clinical Chemistry and Haematology Laboratory , Gelderse Vallei Hospital , PO Box 9025 , 6710 HN , Ede , the Netherlands.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble hormone that traditionally has been linked to bone health. Recently, its involvement has been extended to other (extra-skeletal) disease areas, such as cancer, CVD, energy metabolism and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide problem, and several recommendation-setting bodies have published guidelines for adequate vitamin D intake and status. However, recommendations from, for example, the Health Council of the Netherlands do not provide advice on how to treat vitamin D deficiency, a condition that is often encountered in the clinic. In addition, these recommendations provide guidelines for the maintenance of 'minimum levels', and do not advise on 'optimum levels' of vitamin D intake/status to further improve health. The NutriProfiel project, a collaboration between the Gelderse Vallei Hospital (Ede, the Netherlands) and the Division of Human Nutrition of Wageningen University (Wageningen, the Netherlands), was initiated to formulate a protocol for the treatment of vitamin deficiency and for the maintenance of optimal vitamin D status. To discuss the controversies around treatment of deficiency and optimal vitamin D status and intakes, a workshop meeting was organised with clinicians, scientists and dietitians. In addition, a literature review was conducted to collect recent information on optimal intake of vitamins, their optimal circulating concentrations, and effective dosing regimens to treat deficiency. This information has been translated into the NutriProfiel advice, which is outlined in this article.
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