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Vitamin D needed by pregnant women and neonates (in developing countries now too - 2 tables) – May 2018

Associations of Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency with Pregnancy and Neonatal Complications in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050640 (registering DOI)
Paige van der Pligt 1,* , Jane Willcox 2,3, Ewa A. Szymlek-Gay 1, Emily Murray 2, Anthony Worsley 1OrcID and Robin M. Daly 1
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)


Deficiency definition varied between the studies: < 20 ng and < 15 ng
They did not look at associations of low Vitamin D after leaving hospital (infant, not neonate)

  • asthma, respiratory tract infection, allergies (food, dust, pollen, mite), higher than normal # of doctor visits, sudden infant deaths, rickets, shaken baby syndrome, ADHD, autism, congenital health problems, pneumonia, growing pains, obesity, jaundice - all of which are in VitaminDWiki

See also VitaminDWiki

Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary

0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
Pregnancy category starts with

787 items in Pregnancy category

 - see also

Infant-Child category has

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Note that
+: significant association between VDD and the outcome in question;
-: no significant association.
When neither + or - is given indicated that outcome was not assessed.



GDMgestational diabetes mellitus
GHTNgestational hypertension
PROMpremature rupture of membrane
SROMspontaneous rupture of membranes
IFDIntrauterine Fetal Death (death of fetus after 20 weeks)
NICUneonatal intensive care unit
HChead circumference
CMcongenital malformation
SGAsmall for gestational age
PHprolonged hospitalization
Post MBpost mature birth
MMAPmean maternal arterial pressure
W zscorewasting z score


* PPO poor pregnancy outcomes (grouped by study researchers)
PPD postpartum depression
PC perinatal complications risk. Grouped outcomes:
Mode of Delivery (includes vaginal delivery and lower segment caesarean section),
Birth weight (includes low birth weight),
Congenital Malformation (includes Bony Abnormality),
Stunted Growth (includes Impaired Fetal Growth),
Still birth/IFD (includes mortality).

Pregnant women in Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America are at risk of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and prevalence throughout these regions are among the highest, globally. Maternal VDD has been associated with increased risk of a number of adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes, yet research from developing countries is limited. We assessed the associations of maternal VDD during pregnancy with adverse health outcomes by synthesizing the literature from observational studies conducted in developing countries. Six electronic databases were searched for English-language studies published between 2000 and 2017.
Thirteen studies from seven countries were included in the review.
Prevalence of VDD ranged from 51.3% to 100%.
Six studies assessed both maternal and neonatal outcomes, four studies assessed only maternal outcomes and three studies assessed only neonatal outcomes.
Ten studies showed at least one significant association between VDD and adverse maternal and/or neonatal health outcomes including

  • pre-eclampsia (n = 3),
  • gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 1),
  • postpartum depression (n = 1),
  • emergency cesarean section delivery (n = 1),
  • low birth weight babies (n = 4),
  • small for gestational age (n = 2), stunting (n = 1).

However most of these studies (n = 6) also showed no association with multiple health outcomes.
Vitamin D assessment methods, criteria applied to define VDD, season and trimester in which studies were conducted varied considerably across studies. In conclusion, this study highlights the need to improve maternal vitamin D status in developing countries in an effort to support best maternal and child health outcomes across these regions. Future research should focus on more unified approaches to vitamin D assessment and preventative approaches that may be embedded into already existing antenatal care settings

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
9877 Neonate.jpg admin 19 May, 2018 02:14 76.24 Kb 322
9876 Maternal.jpg admin 19 May, 2018 02:14 73.87 Kb 305
9875 Pregnancy and Neonatal Developing Countries.pdf PDF 2018 admin 19 May, 2018 02:13 886.83 Kb 331
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