Endocr Relat Cancer April 1, 2013 20 R31-R47
Lieve Verlinden and
Annemieke Verstuyf, mieke.verstuyf at med.kuleuven.be
Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, bus 902, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is mostly known for its importance in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, next to its classical effects on bone, kidney and intestine, 1,25(OH)2D3 also exerts antineoplastic effects on various types of cancer. The use of 1,25(OH)2D3 itself as treatment against neoplasia is hampered by its calcemic side effects. Therefore, 1,25(OH)2D3-derived analogs were developed that are characterized by lower calcemic side effects and stronger antineoplastic effects. This review mainly focuses on the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying signaling pathways. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs inhibit proliferation, angiogenesis, migration/invasion and induce differentiation and apoptosis in malignant cell lines. Moreover, prostaglandin synthesis and Wnt/b-catenin signaling are also influenced by 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs.
Human studies indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D3 values and the incidence of certain cancer types. Given the literature, it appears that the epidemiological link between vitamin D3 and cancer is the strongest for CRC, however more intervention studies and randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to unravel the beneficial dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs to induce antineoplastic effects.
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
This study, like many others, highlights a known problem with vitamin D monotherapy.
The amount of Vitamin D needed to provide health improvements, increases the bioavaliability of Calcium.
The solution, most likely, is to not use vitamin D as a monotherapy, but rather use it with one or more of its well known cofactors, such as Vitamin K2 and Magnesium.
Vitamin D analogs (which can be patented) are not needed to reduce Calcium, just vitamin D's natural cofactors.
- All items in Colon Cancer and Vitamin D
- Overview Cancer-Colon and vitamin D
- Low cost cofactors for vitamin D
- Who said vitamin D could not be patented
- Colorectal Cancer and Vitamin D infographic March 2013 - has the following
- Must balance co-factors when increasing vitamin D has the following graph
- IoM again fails to look at interactions - Nov 2010
has the graph: dangerous to have too much Calcium while having lots of vitamin D