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Vitamin D measured in 4000 people for many years – longitudinal associations – May 2015

Longitudinal associations between lifestyle and vitamin D: A general population study with repeated vitamin D measurements.

Endocrine. 2015 May 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Skaaby T1, Husemoen LL, Thuesen BH, Pisinger C, Hannemann A, Jørgensen T, Linneberg A.
1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, tea.skaaby.01 at regionh.dk.

VitaminDWiki Summary
BMI -0.3 ng/ml
per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI
moderately/vigorously physically active
versus sedentary
4.50 ng/ml
(probably outdoors more)
healthy dietary habits
versus unhealthy dietary habits
1.8 ng/ml
1 drink increase in alcohol 0.05 ng/ml (virually nothing)
never smokers versus daily smokers 0.86 ng/ml

See also VitaminDWiki
Overview Obesity and Vitamin D
Overview Sports and vitamin D
Smoking reduces vitamin D


Several lifestyle factors have been found to be associated with vitamin D status in cross-sectional studies, but it is not clear whether a change in these factors can actually affect the vitamin D level. We investigated the association between repeated measurements of physical activity, body mass index (BMI), diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits, and corresponding levels of vitamin D during 5 years of follow-up of a large general population sample. We included 4185 persons who participated and had vitamin D (serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH-D) measurements in the Inter99 study at baseline (1999-2001) and 5-year follow-up. In a subsample, 25-OH-D was also measured at 1- and 3-year follow-ups. We used mixed models to examine the association between repeated measurements of lifestyle factors and 25-OH-D levels. In multivariable analyses of repeated measurements, the difference in 25-OH-D was -0.32 ng/ml (95 % CI -0.37, -0.28) per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI; 4.50 ng/ml (95 % CI 3.84, 5.15) for persons moderately/vigorously physically active versus sedentary; 1.82 ng/ml (95 % CI 1.09, 2.56) for persons with healthy versus unhealthy dietary habits; 0.05 ng/ml (95 % CI 0.03, 0.07) per 1 standard drink/weak increase in alcohol consumption; and 0.86 ng/ml (95 % CI 0.36, 1.35) for never smokers versus daily smokers. Our study shows that lower BMI, a higher level of physical activity, a healthier diet and possibly a higher alcohol intake, and not smoking, are associated with higher 25-OH-D levels.

PMID: 26024976
Publisher wants $40 for the PDF

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