Vitamin D-fortified bread is as effective as supplement in improving vitamin D status: a randomized clinical trial.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Apr 26:jc20161631. [Epub ahead of print]
Nikooyeh B1, Neyestani TR1, Zahedirad M1, Mohammadi M2, Hedayat Hosseini S3, Abdollahi Z4, Salehi F4, Mirzay Razaz J5, Shariatzadeh N1, Kalayi A1, Lotfollahi N1, Maleki MR1.
|1000 IU in bread||1000 IU supplement|
|Vitamin D changes||+16 ng||+12 ng|
|LCL-C||-10 mg/L|| -7 mg/dL |
|Serum HDL||+10 mg/dL||+6 ng/dL|
See also VitaminDWiki
- Note: similar number of people avoid bread (gluten free) as avoid milk (lactose intolerant)
- Cooking reduces vitamin D content by about 30 percent – Oct 2013
- Can fortify food with 1000 IU of vitamin D - Italy, March 2013
- FDA raises the amount of vitamin D2 fortification in bread – Aug 2012
Unfortunately D2 is not nearly as good as D3
10 most visited pages in Fortification with Vitamin D category
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Bread can potentially be a suitable vehicle for fortification with vitamin D.
This study was undertaken to evaluate (1) bioavailability of vitamin D from the fortified Iranian bread, and (2) the possible effects of daily consumption of the fortified bread on certain health aspects.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
This was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial conducted over 8 weeks in 90 healthy subjects aged 20-60 yr.
Subjects were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups: (a) fortified bread (FP; 50 g bread fortified with 25μg vitamin D3 plus placebo daily; n1 = 30); (b) supplement (SP; 50 g plain bread plus 25μg vitamin D supplement daily; n2 = 30); and (c) control (CP; 50 g plain bread plus placebo daily; n3 =30).
Measures: Initial and final anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed.
The within-group changes of serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 39.0±22.6 (p<0.001), 28.9±31.2 (p<0.001) and -9.2±12.3 nmol/L in the FP, SP and CP groups, respectively. Only in FP and SP groups, serum iPTH concentrations decreased approximately 13.5% and 14.5%, respectively. Visceral fat also showed a significant decrement in FP (-1.05±1.4%; p=<0.001) and SP (-0.96±1.7%; p=0.006). Serum LDL-C concentration showed a within-group reduction in FP (-10.4±11.2 mg/dL; p <0.001) and an insignificant decrement in SP (-6.6±20.2 mg/dL; p=0.083). Serum HDL increased in both vitamin D supplemented groups (FP: 9.7±7.6 vs. SP: 5.7±6.7 mg/dL; p<0.001).
Vitamin D-fortified bread could be a potentially effective in raising circulating 25(OH)D of the population to nearly adequate levels.