Do multi-ingredient protein supplements augment resistance training-induced gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength? A systematic review and meta-analysis of 35 trials.
Br J Sports Med. 2019 Mar 1. pii: bjsports-2018-099889. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099889.
O'Bryan KR1, Doering TM1, Morton RW2, Coffey VG1, Phillips SM2, Cox GR1.
Only suspect that only low vitamin D was used.in the trials - this meta-analysis does not indicate how much
Have not had the time to check each of the RCTs to see the amount of vitamin D used
- Type 2 muscles, not all muscles, get benefit from Vitamin D - Dec 2012
- Elderly lower limb muscle strength improved with Vitamin D supplementation - Meta-analysis Oct 2013
- Resistance exercise combined with Vitamin D is great for seniors – meta-analysis July 2017
- Vitamin D and muscle – April 2019
- Dietary Protein, Muscle and Physical Function in the Very Old – July 2018
- Seniors gained 0.3 kg of muscle in 6 weeks with 800 IU and Leucine protein – Aug 2017
- More fast twitch muscles (IIA) are associated with higher levels of Vitamin D – Feb 2017
Overview Sports and vitamin D has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:
- Faster reaction time
- Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
- Less sore/tired after a workout
- Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
- Bones which do break heal much more quickly
- Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
- Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
- Professional indoor athletes are starting to supplement with vitamin D or use vitamin D beds
- Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
- The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
- Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
- Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
- Sports and Vitamin D category
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of multi-ingredient protein (MIP) supplements on resistance exercise training (RT)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength compared with protein-only (PRO) or placebo supplementation.
DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials with interventions including RT ≥6 weeks in duration and a MIP supplement.
Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation on fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, one-repetition maximum (1RM) upper body and 1RM lower body muscular strength. Subgroup analyses compared the efficacy of MIP supplementation relative to training status and chronological age.
The most common MIP supplements included protein with creatine (n=17) or vitamin D (n=10). Data from 35 trials with 1387 participants showed significant (p<0.05) increases in FFM (0.80 kg (95% CI 0.44 to 1.15)), 1RM lower body (4.22 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 7.64)) and 1RM upper body (2.56 kg (95% CI 0.79 to 4.33)) where a supplement was compared with all non-MIP supplemented conditions (means (95% CI)). Subgroup analyses indicated a greater effect of MIP supplements compared with all non-MIP supplements on FFM in untrained (0.95 kg (95% CI 0.51 to 1.39), p<0.0001) and older participants (0.77 kg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.43), p=0.02); taking MIP supplements was also associated with gains in 1RM upper body (1.56 kg (95% CI 0.80 to 2.33), p=0.01) in older adults.
When MIP supplements were combined with resistance exercise training, there were greater gains in FFM and strength in healthy adults than in counterparts who were supplemented with non-MIP. MIP supplements were not superior when directly compared with PRO supplements. The magnitude of effect of MIP supplements was greater (in absolute values) in untrained and elderly individuals undertaking RT than it was in trained individuals and in younger people.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017081970.