J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Apr 5.
Adeyemi OM, Agniel D, French AL, Tien P, Weber K, Glesby MJ, Villacres MC, Sharma A, Merenstein D, Golub ET, Meyer W, Cohen M.
CORE Center, Cook County Hospital1, Rush University Medical Center2, University of California, San Francisco3, Weill Medical College of Cornell University4, University of Southern California5, SUNY downstate Medical Center6, Georgetown University Medical Center7, Johns Hopkins University School of Public health8, Quest Diagnostics9.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is of increasing concern in HIV-infected persons, because of its reported association with a number of negative health outcomes that are common in HIV. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency among a nationally representative cohort of middle-aged, ethnically diverse HIV-infected and uninfected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS).
METHODS: Vitamin D testing was performed by Quest Diagnostics on frozen sera using the liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) method. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25 (OH) D ?20 ng/ml. Comparisons of continuous and categorical characteristics among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women were made by Wilcoxon tests and Pearson chi-squared tests, respectively.
RESULTS: 1778 women (1268 HIV+) were studied. 63% had vitamin D deficiency (60% HIV +vs. 72%HIV-; p<0.001). Multivariable predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency were being African American (AOR 3.02), Hispanic (AOR 1.40), Body mass index (AOR 1.43), Age (AOR 0.84), HIV+ (AOR 0.76), Glomerular filtration rate <90/ml/min (AOR 0.94) and WIHS site; Los Angeles (AOR 0.66), Chicago (AOR 0.63). In the HIV+ women multivariate predictors were; undetectable HIVRNA (AOR 0.69), CD4 50-200 cells/mm (AOR 1.60), CD4 <50 cells/mm (AOR 1.94) and recent Protease Inhibitor use (AOR 0.67).
CONCLUSIONS: In this study of over 1700 women in the US, most women with or without HIV infection had low vitamin D levels and African American women had the highest rates of Vitamin D deficiency. An understanding of the role that vitamin D deficiency plays in non-AIDS related morbidities is planned for investigation in WIHS.
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