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Vitamin D Deficiency may be an Independent Risk Factor for Arterial Disease – July 2012

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2012 Jul 25.
van de Luijtgaarden KM, Voûte MT, Hoeks SE, Bakker EJ, Chonchol M, Stolker RJ, Rouwet EV, Verhagen HJ.
Department of Vascular Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Anesthesiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status in patients with occlusive or aneurysmatic arterial disease in relation to clinical cardiovascular risk profiles and markers of atherosclerotic disease.

METHODS: We included 490 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD, n = 254) or aortic aneurysm (n = 236). Cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and vitamin D were assessed. Patients were categorised into severely (?25 nmol l(-1)) or moderately (26-50 nmol l(-1)) vitamin D deficient, vitamin D insufficient (51-75 nmol l(-1)) or vitamin D sufficient (>75 nmol l(-1)).

RESULTS: Overall, 45% of patients suffered from moderate or severe vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was similar in patients with PAD and those with an aortic aneurysm. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with congestive heart failure and cerebrovascular disease.
Adjusting for clinical cardiovascular risk factors, multivariable regression analyses showed that low vitamin D status was associated with

  • higher CIMT (P = 0.001), (carotid intima-media thickness)
  • lower ABI (P < 0.001) (ankle-brachial index) and
  • higher hs-CRP (P = 0.022). (high-sensitive C-reactive protein)

CONCLUSIONS: The current study shows a strong association between low vitamin D status and arterial disease, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and irrespective of the type of vascular disease, that is, occlusive or aneurysmatic disease.

Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd, PMID: 22841360

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