Habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a prospective study in UK Biobank
Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 Jan 29;nqaa381. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa381
Hao Ma 1, Tao Zhou 1, Yoriko Heianza 1, Lu Qi 1 2 3
Note: Only 363 of 7934 people in UK Biobank were taking some amount of Vitamin D in 2006-2010
Biobank information is extremely out of date, and should be ignored
It is amazing that it gets past peer-review
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- Acute viral respiratory infections reduced by Vitamin D - overview of 20 reviews - Aug 2020
- Prudent to consider that Vitamin D has a role in COVID-19 – meta-analysis – Aug 7, 2020
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
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- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitminin D – meta-analysis March 2018
As of Feb 28 had: 34 trials, 5 trial results, 14 meta-analyses and reviews, 47 observations, 30 recommendations, 47 associations, 85 speculations, 40 videos see also COVID-19 and Vitamin D: Governments, HealthProblems, Hospitals, Dark Skins, 26 COVID-19 risk factors are associated with low Vit D, Recent Virus pages
Background: Previous studies have related vitamin D supplementation to a lower risk of acute respiratory tract infection. Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D insufficiency is related to a higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection.
Objectives: We aimed to investigate the prospective association between habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of COVID-19 infection, and assess whether such an association differed according to the different levels of circulating and genetically predicted vitamin D.
Methods: This study included 8297 adults who have records of COVID-19 test results from UK Biobank (from 16 March 2020 to 29 June 2020). The use of vitamin D supplements, circulating vitamin D levels, and main covariates were measured at baseline (2006-2010). Genetically predicted vitamin D levels were evaluated by genetic risk score.
Results: After adjustment for covariates, the habitual use of vitamin D supplements was significantly associated with a 34% lower risk of COVID-19 infection (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45-0.97; P = 0.034). Circulating vitamin D levels at baseline or genetically predicted vitamin D levels were not associated with the risk of COVID-19 infection. The association between the use of vitamin D supplements and the risk of COVID-19 infection did not vary according to the different levels of circulating or genetically predicted vitamin D (P-interactions = 0.75 and 0.74, respectively).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that habitual use of vitamin D supplements is related to a lower risk of COVID-19 infection, although we cannot rule out the possibility that the inverse association is due to residual confounding or selection bias. Further clinical trials are needed to verify these results.