Table of contents
- Proportion of Navy Recruits Diagnosed With Symptomatic Stress Fractures During Training and Monetary Impact of These Injuries
- VitaminDWiki pages with STRESS FRACTURE in title (13 as of July 2022)
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17 studies in both categories Bone and Sports
- VitaminDWiki - Is 50 ng of vitamin D too high, just right, or not enough
- VitaminDWiki - Vitamin D levels dropping: 50 ng ==> 30 ng
Proportion of Navy Recruits Diagnosed With Symptomatic Stress Fractures During Training and Monetary Impact of These Injuries
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2022 Jun 28. doi: 10.1097/CORR.0000000000002304
Clare E Griffis 1 2, Aileen M Pletta 3 2, Christian Mutschler 4, Anwar E Ahmed 5, Shannon D Lorimer 1 2
Background: Lower extremity stress fractures result in lost time from work and sport and incur costs in the military when they occur in service members. Hypovitaminosis D has been identified as key risk factor in these injuries. An estimated 33% to 90% of collegiate and professional athletes have deficient vitamin D levels. Other branches of the United States military have evaluated the risk factors for stress fractures during basic training, including vitamin D deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, a study evaluating the correlation between these injuries and vitamin D deficiency in US Navy recruits and a cost analysis of these injuries has not been performed. Cutbacks in military medical staffing mean more active-duty personnel are being deferred for care to civilian providers. Consequently, data that previously were only pertinent to military medical providers have now expanded to the nonmilitary medical community.
Questions/purposes: We therefore asked:
- (1) What proportion of US Navy recruits experience symptomatic lower extremity stress fractures, and what proportion of those recruits had hypovitaminosis vitamin D on laboratory testing?
- (2) What are the rehabilitation costs involved in the treatment of lower extremity stress fractures, including the associated costs of lost training time?
- (3) Is there a cost difference in the treatment of stress fractures between recruits with lower extremity stress fractures who have vitamin D deficiency and those without vitamin D deficiency?
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the electronic medical record at Naval Recruit Training Command in Great Lakes, IL, USA, of all active-duty males and females trained from 2009 until 2015. We used ICD-9 and ICD-10 diagnosis codes to identify those diagnosed with symptomatic lower extremity stress fractures. Data collected included geographic region of birth, preexisting vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D level at the time of diagnosis, medical history, BMI, age, sex, self-reported race or ethnicity, hospitalization days, days lost from training, and the number of physical therapy, primary care, and specialty visits. To ascertain the proportion of recruits who developed symptomatic stress fractures, we divided the number of recruits who were diagnosed with a stress fracture by the total number who trained over that span of time, which was 204,774 individuals. During the span of this study, 45% (494 of 1098) of recruits diagnosed with a symptomatic stress fracture were female and 55% (604 of 1098) were male, with a mean ± SD age of 24 ± 4 years.
We defined hypovitaminosis D as a vitamin D level lower than 40 ng/mL.
Levels less than 40 ng/mL were defined as low normal and levels less than 30 ng/mL as deficient.
Vitamin D levels were obtained at the discretion of the individual treating provider without standardization of protocol.
Cost was defined as
- physical therapy visits,
- primary care visits,
- orthopaedic visits,
- diagnostic imaging costs,
- laboratory costs, hospitalizations, if applicable, and
- days lost from training.
Diagnostic studies and laboratory tests were incorporated as indirect costs into initial and follow-up physical therapy visits. Evaluation and management code fee schedules for initial visits and follow-up visits were used as direct costs. We obtained these data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. Per capita cost was calculated by taking the total cost and dividing it by the study population. Days lost from training is based on a standardized government military salary of recruits to include room and board.
Results: We found that 0.5% (1098 of 204,774) of recruits developed a symptomatic lower extremity stress fracture.
Of the recruits who had vitamin D levels drawn at the time of stress fracture, 95% (416 of 437 [95% confidence interval (CI) 94% to 98%]; p > 0.99) had hypovitaminosis D (≤ 40 ng/mL) and 82% (360 of 437 [95% CI 79% to 86%]; p > 0.99) had deficient levels (≤ 30 ng/mL) on laboratory testing, when evaluated.
The total treatment cost was USD 9506 per recruit.
Days lost in training was a median of 56 days (4 to 108) for a per capita cost of USD 5447 per recruit. Recruits with deficient vitamin D levels (levels ≤ 30 ng/mL) incurred more physical therapy treatment costs than did those with low-normal vitamin D levels (levels 31 to 40 ng/mL) (mean difference USD 965 [95% CI 2 to 1928]; p = 0.049).
Conclusion: The cost of lost training and rehabilitation associated with symptomatic lower extremity stress fractures represents a major financial burden. Screening for and treatment of vitamin D deficiencies before recruit training could offer a cost-effective solution to decreasing the stress fracture risk. Recognition and treatment of these deficiencies has a role beyond the military, as hypovitaminosis and stress fractures are common in collegiate or professional athletes.
This list is automatically updatedItems found: 13
17 studies in both categories Bone and Sports
This list is automatically updated
- Typical stress fracture during US Navy training cost 14,953 dollars, most had less than 40 ng Vitamin D - June 2022
- Stress fractures take longer to heal if low vitamin D – Aug 2020
- Stress Fractures and Vitamin D – narrative review March 2021
- Some Foot and ankle problems are treated by Vitamin D – many studies
- 4X fewer stress fractures in college athletes if more than 40 ng of vitamin D – Feb 2016
- Metatarsal Stress Fracture 5X more likely if low vitamin D – Nov 2015
- Stress fractures – 83 percent had less than 40 ng of vitamin D – Sept 2015
- Stress fractures in basic training associated with 2.5 ng less vitamin D – meta-analysis Nov 2014
- People with old burns improved muscle strength with 2200 IU average vitamin D – RCT Sept 2014
- Strong bones need both physical activity and vitamin D – Jan 2013
- Female Athlete health problems may be due to lack of vitamin D and Iron – July 2012
- Half as many fractures for girls with high vitamin D intake – March 2012
- Perhaps Stress fractures 2X less frequent if 4000 IU of vitamin D – June 2011
- Shin splints decrease with vitamin D
- Many abstracts on fewer stress and bone fractures with vitamin D
- Sports Nutrition Conference on Bone health Calcium and vitamin D – Sept 2010
- Vitamin D at Experimental Biology meeting April 2010
VitaminDWiki - Is 50 ng of vitamin D too high, just right, or not enough
VitaminDWiki - Vitamin D levels dropping: 50 ng ==> 30 ngTypical stress fracture during US Navy training cost 14,953 dollars, most had less than 40 ng Vitamin D - June 2022
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