The role of vitamin d deficiency in the incidence, progression, and complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013:148673. doi: 10.1155/2013/148673. Epub 2013 Mar 13.
Chakhtoura M, Azar ST.
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, 3 Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, 8th floor, New York, NY 10017, USA.
The "nonclassic" role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has been recently widely recognized. In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), it plays an immunomodulatory role through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) present on pancreatic and immune cells. Specific VDR allelic variants have been associated with T1D in many countries. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency has been prevalent in T1D, and the seasonal and latitude variability in the incidence of T1D can be partly explained by the related variability in vitamin D level. In fact, retrospective studies of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy or infancy showed a lower incidence of T1D. We will review the different mechanisms of the vitamin D protective effect against insulitis and present the available data on the role of vitamin D deficiency in the control, progression, and complications of T1D.
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- Overview Diabetes and vitamin D
- Type 1 diabetes strongly associated with low vitamin D – March 2013
- Type 1 Diabetes probability reduced by 2X if have more than 40 ng of vitamin D – Feb 2013
- Type 1 Diabetes associated with low vitamin D, especially in dark skinned youths – Dec 2012 yet the study on this page found no relationship
- Prevent half of T1 Diabetes with vitamin D levels of 50 ng – Dec 2012
- Probability of Type I diabetes reduced 29 percent with vitamin D – systematic review July 2012
- 44 percent less Type 1 diabetes if high level of vitamin D – white skinned military – March 2013
- T1 diabetes OR type1 diabetes in title 23 in VitaminDWiki as of Dec 2014
- Type 1 diabetes starting to decrease in Finland, they started Vitamin D fortification in 2003 – July 2013
- INTERVENTION Clinical Trials for Type 1 Diabetes and Vitamin D 64 trials as of Dec 2014