Incidence and Trend of Type 1 Diabetes and the Underlying Environmental Determinants.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2018 Sep 11:e3075. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3075. [Epub ahead of print]
Xia Y1,2, Xie Z1,2, Huang G1,2, Zhou Z1,2.
- 1 Department of Metabolism & Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
- 2 Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology (Central South University), Ministry of Education; National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Changsha, Hunan, China.
a proxy for T1D
- Type 1 Diabetes is increasing – decreased vitamin D is one of the many possible reasons – Sept 2018
- Early Type 1 Diabetes May Shorten Women’s Lives by 18 Years - Aug 2018
- Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) 1.6 X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 2018
- Type 1 Diabetes 14 percent more likely with 2 Vitamin D Receptor mutations – Oct 2017
- T1 Diabetes associated with many other autoimmune diseases (all related to low vitamin D) – May 2017
- Vitamin D deficiency is associated with prediabetes in obese Swedish children – Oct 2016
- Type 1 diabetes 1.6 times more likely if a Vitamin D Receptor problem – Feb 2017
- Type II Diabetes in children in India increased 4 X in 20 years – Nov 2016
- Type 1 diabetes risk not decreased if add 400 IU vitamin D while pregnant (no surprise) – Dec 2016
- Congenital Heart problems - vitamin D levels drop even lower after surgery, loading dose probably required - thesis 2015
- Diabetes in child not prevented by a tiny amount of vitamin D during pregnancy – Nov 2015
- Diabetes (Type 1) increasing 4 percent per year, now 30,000 in the UK - May 2015
- Type 1 diabetes helped with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – Nov 2014
- T1 Diabetes associated with low vitamin D - Nov 2014
- Type I Diabetes stopped increasing in Finland after Vitamin D levels were raised – July 2014
- Diabetic children often need more than 7,000 IU of vitamin D – June 2014
- T1 Diabetes 35 percent more likely if 10 degrees further from equator (less vitamin D) – June 2014
- Higher vitamin D at birth associated with less diabetes and obesity 35 years later – Jan 2014
- Type 1 diabetes 3.5X more frequent if low vitamin D - Medscape CME Dec 2012
- Metabolic Syndrome in children is associated with low vitamin D – review Jan 2013
- Like their diabetic mothers, infants had low vitamin D and were slightly diabetic – May 2012
- Type I diabetes 2X more likely if mother had low vitamin D – Jan 2012
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T1 diabetes OR type1 diabetes in title 107 as of April 2018
PDF is available free at Sci-Hub 10.1002/dmrr.3075
A wealth of epidemiological studies concerning the distribution of type 1 diabetes (T1D) around the world have pointed to the appreciable variation in the incidence of T1D among disparate age groups, ethnicities and geographical locations. On the whole, the incidence of childhood T1D has been on the rise and a plausible inverse relationship between the initial incidence rate and the following annual increase in incidence has been raised.
Countries that used to exhibit lower incidences tend to have steep annual increase whereas those with already-established high incidences are more likely to show a modest increase or even stabilization in T1D incidence.
Environmental agents considered responsible for the current evolving pattern of T1D incidence will be detailed, mainly including the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, viral infections in a chronic manner, maternal-child interaction such as breastfeeding and latitude-ultraviolet B-vitamin D pathway. Certain rationale has been put forward in an attempt to explain the potential association between environmental agents and development of T1D. For instance, accelerator hypothesis regards insulin resistance as the promoter of earlier disease onset in obese children whereas the negative correlation of microbial infections in background populations with incidence of T1D represents the basic component of the hygiene hypothesis. Further investigations are still warranted to verify these theories across multiple ethnic groups and to identify additional contributors to the variation in T1D incidence.