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Two thirds of South Asians have low Vitamin D (less than 20 ng) – meta-analysis Oct 2021

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High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the South Asian adults:
a systematic review and meta-analysis

BMC Public Health. 2021 Oct 9;21(1):1823. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11888-1.
Mahbubul H Siddiqee # 1 2, Badhan Bhattacharjee # 3 4, Umme Ruman Siddiqi 5, Mohammad MeshbahurRahman 6
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Background: Vitamin-D deficiency is linked to a wide range of chronic and infectious diseases. Body of literature suggested that the prevalence of this deficiency can have geographical variation. Although vitamin D deficiency is frequently reported in the South Asian population, the scarcity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis means the true extent of the disease and the underlying factors causing it are poorly characterized.

Methods: A systematic search was performed using two databases (PubMed and Scopus) and one search engine (Google Scholar) for original studies on the South Asian population (published from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2019). Following the search, a random effect meta-analysis was performed to calculate population-level weighted average, the pooled prevalence of deficiency, and heterogeneity of vitamin D among different countries and genders; in addition to South Asia as a whole.

Results: Our study, based on our selection criteria was narrowed down to a total of 44,717 participants; which spanned over 65 studies from five South Asian countries. Overall, the pooled prevalence of deficiency was 68% [95% CI: 64 to 72%] with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 98%; p = 0.00). The average level of vitamin D ranged from 4.7 to 32 ng/mL, with a weighted mean of 19.15 ng/mL (weighted standard deviation 11.59 ng/mL). The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found in

  • Pakistan (73%;95% CI: 63 to 83%) followed by
  • Bangladesh (67%; 95% CI: 50 to 83%),
  • India (67%; 95% CI: 61 to 73%),
  • Nepal (57%; 95% CI: 53 to 60%) and
  • Sri Lanka (48%; 95% CI: 41 to 55%), respectively.

This finding indicated a high degree of heterogeneity among the population. (I2 = 98.76%), Furthermore, a gender-wise analysis suggested that in South Asia, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in females than males.

Conclusion: Our findings reveal highly prevalent and variable vitamin D deficiency among the adults of different South Asian countries. Findings from this review would be helpful to generate hypotheses and explore the factors affecting the inter-country


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VitaminDWiki pages containing INDIA in title (47 as of Oct 2021)

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Items found: 47
Title Modified
More people with Chronic Kidney Disease are now getting Vitamin D prescriptions (India) – Sept 2021 05 Sep, 2021
India raises RDAs - Vitamin D will be a measely 600 IU - July 2021 31 Jul, 2021
COVID-21 (COVID-19 with mutations) causing increased pregnancy problems in Brazil and India – May 2021 27 May, 2021
COVID-19 has hit populist-lead countries hard (India, Brazil, US, UK, Mexico) – May 2021 09 May, 2021
COVID-19 protocol proposed in India includes Vitamin D - Nov 12, 2020 05 Dec, 2020
60,000 IU dose of VItamin D (weekly, monthly) is popular in India 17 Nov, 2020
Vitamin-D: An Immune Shield Against COVID-19 – India May 21, 2020 22 May, 2020
Vitamin D levels from lowest to highest: Middle East, China. India, S EU. N EU – Dec 2019 14 Mar, 2020
Children in India – 1 in 7 extremely low Vitamin D, 1 in 10 prediabetic – Sept 2019 10 Oct, 2019
Low Vitamin D and Calcium in India – Aug 2019 09 Aug, 2019
Children need 2000 IU of Vitamin D (India) - RCT May 2019 19 May, 2019
Vitamin D level of outdoor workers in India was only 18 ng– May 2019 16 May, 2019
All preteen aged girls in India taking 2,000 IU of vitamin D got levels above 20 ng – RCT Nov 2018 08 Mar, 2019
India wants to cure Vitamin D Deficiency, unfortunately by fortifying with D2 not D3 – Jan 2019 16 Jan, 2019
2,000 IU of Vitamin D raised all girls to above 20 ng (India) – RCT Nov 2018 28 Dec, 2018
International Conference of Vitamin D Fortification of Food (India) – Sept 2018 02 Aug, 2018
Each hour of outdoor work in India increased vitamin D levels by 2 nanograms – March 2017 18 May, 2017
Vitamin D fortification of edible oils in India starting in 2017 26 Mar, 2017
Preterm labor 20 times more likely if low vitamin D, etc. (India) – Feb 2017 08 Mar, 2017
Why India's vitamin D deficiency is grim - 40 pages Feb 2014 07 Mar, 2017
Type II Diabetes in children in India increased 4 X in 20 years – Nov 2016 22 Dec, 2016
Diabetes (Type II) in youths in India now 4 times more likely than 20 years ago (Vit D not mentioned) – Nov 2016 22 Nov, 2016
Increasing number of people admitted to a hospital in India have very high vitamin D – Oct 2016 07 Oct, 2016
1 in 6 critically ill in India have high levels of vitamin D (100 ng) – March 2015 07 Oct, 2016
Vitamin D publications increasing around the world – emphasis on India – Oct 2016 10 Sep, 2016
Farmers in India have 2.5 times higher vitamin D than office workers – 2016 20 Aug, 2016
Vitamin D deficiency a big problem in Pakistan, similar to India – July 2016 10 Jul, 2016
Universal pregnancy vitamin D supplementation for a hospital in India – study stopped after 1 month – April 2016 07 Apr, 2016
Improved births with 2,000 IU vitamin D during pregnancy in India - RCT Feb 2015 12 Nov, 2015
Diabetic glycation control is inversely related to Vitamin D in India – Feb 2015 22 Apr, 2015
Vitamin D fortification of foods, cosmetics, by mfg and at home (India) - Sept 2014 20 Mar, 2015
80 percent of young adults had low vitamin D tests in Mumbai India - 2011 03 Dec, 2014
Vitamin D sachets in India – fewer than a third had the stated amount – Nov 2013 31 Aug, 2014
Children in India – vitamin D guidelines similar to IoM – July 2013 19 Mar, 2014
Rickets in 30 percent of infants in India who had low vitamin D – March 2011 22 Feb, 2014
20 percent of Critically ill in India had undetectable vitamin D, and 62 percent died – Jan 2013 22 Feb, 2014
Mothers and infants in India have very low levels of vitamin D – April 2012 12 Nov, 2013
Girls in India much faster when given Vitamin D, Ca, Zn, multi. – RCT Oct 2013 01 Nov, 2013
Girls in India grew much faster when given Vitamin D, Ca, Zn, multi. – RCT Oct 2013 24 Oct, 2013
Breast cancer increasing in India (perhaps due to lowering vitamin D) – Oct 2013 20 Oct, 2013
Virtually every gynaecologist in India is vitamin D deficient – Feb 2013 04 Feb, 2013
76 percent of young adults in western India had less than 20 ng of vitamin D – Aug 2011 04 Feb, 2013
Almost all newborns in India have less than 20 ng of vitamin D – Nov 2012 10 Dec, 2012
Hip fractures in India - editorial with recommendation - Sept 2010 06 Jul, 2012
Majority of infant seizures in India due to lack of vitamin D - July 2010 25 Jun, 2012
Low BMD among teaching doctors in India - July 2010 09 Jul, 2010
A plea for vitamin D food fortification in India - May 2010 05 May, 2010

VitaminDWiki pages containing PAKISTAN in title (6 as of Oct 2021)

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Items found: 6

Need much more than 20 ng


Created by admin. Last Modification: Monday October 11, 2021 13:08:53 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 11)

Attached files

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16391 S Asia map.jpg admin 11 Oct, 2021 12:34 31.49 Kb 16
16390 Deficiency S Asia meta_compressed.pdf PDF 2021 admin 11 Oct, 2021 12:19 1.37 Mb 5
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