J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2013 Nov;23(10):780-3. doi: 11.2013/JCPSP.780783.
Iftikhar R, Kamran SM, Qadir A, Haider E, Hassan Bin Usman.
Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian.
Objective: To determine the frequency and association of Vitamin D deficiency in patients with tuberculosis. Study
Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Department, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, from July 2010 to June 2012.
Methodology: One hundred and five outdoor patients of tuberculosis were selected with 255 gender matched controls. Tuberculosis was diagnosed by presence of acid fast bacilli in sputum smears, positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis or demonstration of chronic caseating granulomatous inflammation in tissue specimens. Controls were drawn randomly from general population. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D3] levels < 25 ng/ml was considered Vitamin D deficiency. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 17.
Results: Mean Vitamin D levels were 23.23 ± 6.81 ng/ml in cases, 29.27 ± 8.89 ng/ml in controls (p < 0.0001). Vitamin D deficiency was found in
- 57% of cases and
- 33% controls (p < 0.0001).
Mean Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in females with tuberculosis (20.84 ng/ml) as compared to males (25.03 ng/ml, p = 0.002).
Mean BMI in patients of tuberculosis with Vitamin D deficiency were 19.51 ± 1.77 kg/m2 and in patients with normal Vitamin D were 21.65 ± 1.79 kg/m2 (p < 0.0001).
Mean Vitamin D levels in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis was lower to a mean of 15.41 ± 4.67 ng/ml (p < 0.0001).
Conclusion: There is significant deficiency of Vitamin D in patients with tuberculosis as compared to controls.
This deficiency is more pronounced in females, individuals with low BMI, extra pulmonary and MDR tuberculosis.