Antidepressants differentially related to 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 and 25-(OH) vitamin D3 in late-life depression.
Transl Psychiatry. 2014 Apr 15;4:e383. doi: 10.1038/tp.2014.14.
Oude Voshaar RC1, Derks WJ2, Comijs HC3, Schoevers RA1, de Borst MH4, Marijnissen RM5.
1 University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen, The Netherlands.
2 Pro Persona, Department of Old Age Psychiatry, Wolfheze/Arnhem, The Netherlands.
3 VU Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and GGZinGeest, EMGO Institute of Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
4 University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Groningen, The Netherlands.
5 University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen, The Netherlands 2 Pro Persona, Department of Old Age Psychiatry, Wolfheze/Arnhem, The Netherlands.
A low plasma 25-OH vitamin D3 level is a universal risk factor for a wide range of diseases and has also been implicated in late-life depression. It is currently unknown whether the biologically active form of vitamin D, that is, 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3, is also decreased in late-life depression, or whether vitamin D levels correlate with specific depression characteristics. We determined plasma 25-OH vitamin D3, 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 and parathormone levels in 355 depressed older persons and 124 non-depressed comparison subjects (age60 years).
Psychopathology was established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, together with potential confounders and depression characteristics (severity, symptom profile, age of onset, recurrence, chronicity and antidepressant drug use). Adjusted for confounders, depressed patients had significantly lower levels of 25-OH vitamin D33 (Cohen's d =0.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.49), P=0.033) as well as 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 (Cohen's d =0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.70), P<0.001) than comparison subjects. Of all depression characteristics tested, only the use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) was significantly correlated with lower 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 levels (Cohen's d =0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.53-1.19), P<0.001), but not its often measured precursor 25-OH vitamin D3. As vitamin D levels were significantly lower after adjustment for confounders, vitamin D might have an aetiological role in late-life depression. Differences between depressed and non-depressed subjects were largest for the biologically active form of vitamin D. The differential impact of TCAs on 25-OH vitamin D3 and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 levels suggests modulation of 1-α-hydroxylase and/or 24-hydroxylase, which may in turn have clinical implications for biological ageing mechanisms in late-life depression.
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