A randomized study on the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on skeletal muscle morphology and vitamin D receptor concentration in older women
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism October 9, 2013 jc.2013-2820
Lisa Ceglia 1,2,
Sathit Niramitmahapanya 2,3,
Mauricio da S. Morais 4,
Donato A. Rivas 4,
Susan S. Harris 2,
Heike Bischoff-Ferrari 2,5,6,
Roger A. Fielding 4 and
Bess Dawson-Hughes 2
1 Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA;
2 Bone Metabolism Laboratory and;
4 Nutrition, Exercise Physiology and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA;
3 Department of Medicine, Rajavithi Hospital, College of Medicine, Rangsit University, Bangkok, Thailand;
5 Centre on Aging and Mobility, University of Zurich and;
6 City Hospital Waid; Department of Geriatrics and Aging Research, University Hospital Zurich
Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Corresponding Author: Lisa Ceglia, MD MS, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington Street, Box 268, Boston, MA 02111; 617–556-3085 (voice); 617–556-3305 (fax); lisa.ceglia at tufts.edu.
Context: Studies examining whether vitamin D supplementation increases muscle mass or muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR) concentration are lacking.
Objective: To determine whether vitamin D3 4000 IU/d alters muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA) and intramyonuclear VDR concentration over 4 months.
Design and Setting: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in a single center.
Participants: 21 mobility-limited women (aged ≥65 years) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels 22.5–60 nmol/L.
Main Outcome Measures: Baseline and 4-month FCSA and intramyonuclear VDR were measured from vastus lateralis muscle cross-sections probed for muscle fiber type (I/IIa/IIx) and VDR using immunofluorescence.
Results: At baseline, mean (±SD) age was 78±5 years; body mass index (BMI) was 27±5 kg/m2; 25OHD was 46.3±9.5 nmol/L; and a short physical performance battery score was 7.95±1.57 out of 12.
At 4 months, 25OHD level was 52.5±17.1 (placebo) vs. 80.0±11.5 nmol/L (VD; P<0.01) and change in 25OHD level was strongly associated with percent change in intramyonuclear VDR concentration independent of group (r=0.87, P<0.001).
By treatment group, percent change in intramyonuclear VDR concentration was 7.8±18.2% (placebo) vs. 29.7±11.7% (VD; P=0.03) with a more pronounced group difference in type II vs. I fibers. Percent change in total (type I/II) FCSA was −7.4±18.9% (placebo) vs. 10.6±20.0% (VD; P=0.048).
Conclusion: Vitamin D3 supplementation increased intramyonuclear VDR concentration by 30% and increased muscle fiber size by 10% in older, mobility-limited, vitamin D-insufficient women. Further work is needed to determine whether the observed effect of vitamin D on fiber size is mediated by the VDR and to identify which signaling pathways are involved.
|Vitamin D||18(?) ng||32 ng|
|Vitamin D Receptor||+8%||+30%|
|Muscle fiber area||-7%||+11%|
- Had used a restoration/loading dose - say 200,000 IU over a month
- Had used a higher dose of vitamin D - say 8,000 IU (Note that blood level only got to 32 ng)
- Trial had gone on longer than 4 months
- Had used some cofactors (Mg, Ca, etc.) instead of just vitamin D monotherapy; maybe also Bicarbonate - see below
- Had some included some exercise to encourage muscle increase - such as hydroaerobic, below
- Overview Seniors and Vitamin D
- Frailty Call to Action: Vitamin D is one of the action items – June 2013
- 80 percent of the characteristics of frailty associated with low vitamin D – May 2013
- Hydroaerobics added to Vitamin D and Ca significantly improved physical function – March 2013
- Muscle cells differentiate into fat cells if there is low vitamin D in petrie dish – April 2013
- Sarcopenia (muscle loss) fought by Vitamin D, exercise and protein - many studies
- Vitamin D and bicarbonate perhaps synergistically reduce muscle loss – June 2013
- Overview Muscles and Vitamin D
- Muscle improved by increasing vitamin D if previously less than 24 ng – June 2013
- Elderly lower limb muscle strength improved with Vitamin D supplementation - Meta-analysis Oct 2013
- Proof that Vitamin D Works the study on this page is one of the proofs that vitamin D works
- Elderly lost extra half pound of leg and arm muscle mass if low vitamin D (6 years) – Oct 2014