Toggle Health Problems and D

There are 2 concurrent pandemics – COVID-19 and Vitamin D deficiency – May 13, 2020

Br J Nutr. 2020 May 12;1-20. doi: 10.1017/S0007114520001749
Murat Kara 1, Timur Ekiz 2 timurekiz at gmail.com, Vincenzo Ricci 3, Özgür Kara 4, Ke-Vin Chang, Levent Özçakar 1
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki



World Health Organization announced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak to be a global pandemic. The distribution of community outbreaks shows seasonal patterns along certain latitude, temperature, and humidity i.e. similar to the behavior of seasonal viral respiratory tract infections. COVID-19 displays significant spread in northern midlatitude countries with an average temperature of 5-11 °C and low humidity. Vitamin D deficiency has also been described as pandemic, especially in the Europe. Regardless of age, ethnicity, and latitude; recent data showed that 40% of the Europeans are vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L), and 13% are severely deficient (25(OH)D <30 nmol/L)
A quadratic relationship was found between the prevalences of vitamin D deficiency in most commonly affected countries by COVID-19 and the latitudes.
   Note: This equation does not appear to be in the text
Vitamin D deficiency is more common in the subtropical and midlatitude countries than the tropical and high latitude countries.
The most commonly affected countries with severe vitamin D deficiency are from the subtropical (Saudi Arabia; 46%, Qatar; 46%, Iran; 33.4%, Chile; 26.4%) and midlatitude (France; 27.3%, Portugal; 21.2% and Austria; 19.3%) regions.
Severe vitamin D deficiency was found to be nearly 0% in some high latitude countries (e.g. Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Netherlands).
Accordingly, we would like to call attention to the possible association between severe vitamin D deficiency and mortality pertaining to COVID-19. Given its rare side effects and relatively wide safety, prophylactic vitamin D supplementation and/or food fortification might reasonably serve as a very convenient adjuvant therapy for these two worldwide public health problems alike.



  1. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2020 (https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus- 2019/situation-reports/. opens in new tab). Last accessed on 2020 May 4.
  2. Yuki K, Fujiogi M, Koutsogiannaki S. COVID-19 pathophysiology: A review. Clin Immunol. 2020:108427. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2020.108427.
  3. Vaduganathan M, Vardeny O, Michel T, McMurray JJV, Pfeffer MA, Solomon SD. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1653-9.
  4. Zou X, Chen K, Zou J, Han P, Hao J, Han Z. Single-cell RNA-seq data analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection. Front Med. 2020 (In Press). doi: 10.1007/s11684- 020-0754-0.
  5. Eymundsdottir H, Chang M, Geirsdottir OG, et al. Lifestyle and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D among community-dwelling old adults with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognitive function. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2020 (In Press) doi:10.1007/s40520-020-01531-1.
  6. Lopes JB, Fernandes GH, Takayama L, et al. A predictive model of vitamin D insufficiency in older community people: from the Sao Paulo aging & health study (SPAH). Maturitas. 2014; 78: 335-40.
  7. Sarafin K, Durazo-Arvizu R, Tian L, et al. Standardizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D values from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015; 102: 1044-50. Downloaded from https://www.cambridge.org/core. IP address:, on 13 May 2020 at 11:06:48, subject to the Cambridge Core terms of use, available at https://www.cambridge.org/core/terms. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520001749
  8. Urrunaga-Pastor D, Guarnizo-Poma M, Macollunco-Flores P, et al. Association between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance markers in euthyroid nondiabetic individuals. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2019; 13: 258-63.
  9. Orces CH. Vitamin D status among older adults residing in the littoral and Andes mountains in Ecuador. ScientificWorldJournal 2015; 2015: 545297.
  10. Clark P, Vivanco-Munoz N, Pina JT, et al. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Mexicans aged 14 years and older and its correlation with parathyroid hormone. Arch Osteoporos. 2015; 10: 225.
  11. Solis-Urra P, Cristi-Montero C, Romero-Parra J, et al. Passive commuting and higher sedentary time is associated with vitamin D deficiency in adult and older women: Results from Chilean National Health Survey 2016-2017. Nutrients. 2019; 11: 300.
  12. Formiga F, Ferrer A, Megido MJ, et al. Low serum vitamin D is not associated with an increase in mortality in oldest old subjects: the Octabaix three-year follow-up study. Gerontology. 2014; 60: 10-5.
  13. Veronese N, Sergi G, De Rui M, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and incidence of diabetes in elderly people: the PRO.V.A. study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99: 2351-8.
  14. Aspell N, Laird E, Healy M, et al. The prevalence and determinants of vitamin D status in community-dwelling older adults: Results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Nutrients. 2019; 11: 1253.
  15. Cougnard-Gregoire A, Merle BM, Korobelnik JF, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in community-dwelling elderly Is not associated with age-related macular degeneration. J Nutr. 2015; 145: 1865-72.
  16. Vetter VM, Spira D, Banszerus VL, et al. Epigenetic clock and leukocyte telomere length are associated with vitamin D status, but not with functional assessments and frailty in the Berlin Aging Study II. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020 (In Press) doi:10.1093/gerona/glaa101
  17. Karonova T, Andreeva A, Nikitina I, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the North-West region of Russia: A cross-sectional study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; 164: 230-4.
  18. Ozturk ZA, Gol M, Turkbeyler JR. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 90 years in southeast Turkey. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017; 129: 854-5.
  19. Hoge A, Donneau AF, Streel S, et al. Vitamin D deficiency is common among adults in Wallonia (Belgium, 51°30' North): findings from the Nutrition, Environment and Cardio-Vascular Health study. Nutr Res. 2015; 35: 716-25.
  20. Ten Haaf DSM, Balvers MGJ, Timmers S, et al. Determinants of vitamin D status in physically active elderly in the Netherlands. Eur J Nutr. 2019; 58: 3121-8.
  21. Sakem B, Nock C, Stanga Z, et al. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and immunoglobulins in an older Swiss cohort: results of the Senior Labor Study. BMC Med. 2013; 11: 176.
  22. Duarte C, Carvalheiro H, Rodrigues AM, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its predictors in the Portuguese population: a nationwide population-based study. Arch Osteoporos. 2020; 15: 36.
  23. Buchebner D, McGuigan F, Gerdhem P, et al. Vitamin D insufficiency over 5 years is associated with increased fracture risk-an observational cohort study of elderly women. Osteoporos Int. 2014; 25: 2767-75.
  24. Cashman KD, Kiely M, Kinsella M, et al. Evaluation of vitamin D standardization program protocols for standardizing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data: a case study of the program’s potential for national nutrition and health surveys. Am J Clin Nutr.
  25. Elmadfa I, Meyer AL, Wottawa D, et al. Vitamin D intake and status in Austria and its effects on some health indicators. Austin J Nutr Metab. 2017; 4: 1050.
  26. Pludowski P, Ducki C, Konstantynowicz J, et al. Vitamin D status in Poland. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2016; 126: 530-9.
  27. Niculescu DA, Capatina CAM, Dusceac R, et al. Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D levels in Romania. Arch Osteoporos. 2017; 12: 113.
  28. Cashman KD, Dowling KG, Skrabakova Z, et al. Standardizing serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D data from four Nordic population samples using the vitamin D standardization program protocols: Shedding new light on vitamin D status in Nordic individuals. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2015; 75: 549-61.
  29. Cashman KD, Dowling KG, Skrabakova Z, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic? Am J Clin Nutr. 2016; 103: 1033-44.
  30. Kassi EN, Stavropoulos S, Kokkoris P, et al. Smoking is a significant determinant of low serum vitamin D in young and middle-aged healthy males. Hormones (Athens). 2015; 14: 245-50.
  31. Laktasic-Zerjavic N, Korsic M, Crncevic-Orlic Z, et al. Vitamin D status, dependence on age, and seasonal variations in the concentration of vitamin D in Croatian postmenopausal women initially screened for osteoporosis. Clin Rheumatol. 2010; 29: 861-7.
  32. Wei J, Zhu A, Ji JS. A comparison study of vitamin D deficiency among older adults in China and the United States. Sci Rep. 2019; 9: 19713.
  33. Robien K, Butler LM, Wang R, et al. Genetic and environmental predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations among middle-aged and elderly Chinese in Singapore. Br J Nutr. 2013; 109: 493-502.
  34. Nakamura K, Kitamura K, Takachi R, et al. Impact of demographic, environmental, and lifestyle factors on vitamin D sufficiency in 9084 Japanese adults. Bone. 2015; 74: 10-7.
  35. Shin JH, Lee HT, Lim YH, et al. Defining vitamin D deficiency and its relationship to hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women. J Women’s Health (Larchmt). 2015; 24: 1021-9.
  36. Gill TK, Hill CL, Shanahan EM, et al. Vitamin D levels in an Australian population. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14 :1001.
  37. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Ibrahim S, et al. Vitamin D status in Malaysian men and its associated factors. Nutrients. 2014; 6: 5419-33.
  38. Khosravi-Boroujeni H, Sarrafzadegan N, Sadeghi M, et al. Prevalence and trends of vitamin D deficiency among Iranian adults: A longitudinal study from 2001-2013. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2017; 63: 284-90.
  39. Alfawaz H, Tamim H, Alharbi S, et al. Vitamin D status among patients visiting a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a retrospective review of 3475 cases. BMC Public Health 2014; 14: 159.
  40. Mehboobali N, Iqbal SP, Iqbal MP. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a low income peri-urban community in Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2015; 65: 946-9.
  41. Saliba W, Rennert HS, Kershenbaum A, et al. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in sunny Israel. Osteoporos Int. 2012; 23: 687-94.
  42. El-Menyar A, Rahil A, Dousa K, et al. Low vitamin d and cardiovascular risk factors in males and females from a sunny, rich country. Open Cardiovasc Med J. 2012; 6:
  43. Mechenro J, Venugopal G, Buvnesh Kumar et al. Vitamin D status in Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18: 1345.
  44. Lips P, Cashman KD, Lamberg-Allardt C, et al. Current vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency: a position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society. Eur J Endocrinol. 2019; 180: P23-P54.
  45. Mendes MM, Hart KH, Botelho PB, Lanham SA. Vitamin D status in the tropics: is sunlight exposure the main determinant? Nutr Bull 2018;43:428-34
  46. Schleicher RL, Sternberg MR, Looker AC, et al. National estimates of serum total 25– hydroxyvitamin D and metabolite concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the US population during 2007-2010. J Nutr. 2016; 146: 1051-61.
  47. Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, Baggerly CA, French CB, Aliano JL, Bhattoa HP. Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients. 2020;12.pii: E988. doi: 10.3390/nu12040988.
  48. Beard JA, Bearden A, Striker R. Vitamin D and the anti-viral state. J Clin Virol. 2011; 50: 194-200.
  49. Feldman D, Pike JW, Bouillon R, Giovannucci E, Goltzman D, Hewison M. (Eds.). (2017). Vitamin D: Volume 1: Biochemistry, Physiology and Diagnostics. Academic Press.
  50. Sajadi MM, Habibzadeh P, Vintzileos A, Shokouhi S, Shervin and Miralles-Wilhelm, F, Amoroso A. Temperature, humidity and latitude analysis to predict potential spread and seasonality for COVID-19 (March 5, 2020). Available at
  51. SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3550308 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3550308
  52. Welch D, Buonanno M, Grilj V, et al. Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 2752.
  53. Novel coronavirus pneumonia emergency response epidemiology team. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020; 41: 145-51.
  54. Alipio, Mark, Vitamin D supplementation could possibly improve clinical outcomes of patients infected with Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-2019) (April 9, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3571484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3571484.
  55. Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Hooper RL, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. 2017;356:i6583
  56. Mostafa WZ, Hegazy RA. Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review. J Adv Res. 2015;6:793-804.

COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos (in VitaminDWiki)

Contents as of Oct 16:

  • 33 trials, 1 trial result, 26 observations, 9 recommendations, 33 associations, 73 speculations, 25 videos

Top Vitamin D and COVID-19 recent updates

Click on chart for details

Search Google Scholar for COVID-19 Vitamin D 20,000 publications Oct 10, 2020


Intervention Trial Summary Table

Observe - Less likey to become infected

short URL to this section = https://is.gd/COVID_less

Observe - Reduced Severity/Death

Vitamin D Dosing Recommendations for COVID-19

Some people wanted improved immune systems, so took more vitamin D

COVID-19 associated with Low Vitamin D

Vitamin D levels are lower in those who test positive for COVID-19 -[doi:10.3390/nu12051359| Nutrients] May 09

    • Image
  • [https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2020/05/08/vitamin-d-level-correlated-to-covid19-outcomes.aspx?cid_source=dnl&cid_medium=email&cid_content=art1HL&cid=20200508Z1&et_cid=DM527863&et_rid=867359477 |Vitamin D Level Is Directly Correlated to COVID-19 Outcome] Mercola May 8
    • Overview of many studies and video by Ivor Cummins
  • [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200507131012.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fhealth_medicine%2Fvitamin_d+%28Vitamin+D+News+--+ScienceDaily%29 |Vitamin D linked to low virus death rate in 20 countries in Europe] Science Daily May 7
  • [https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.20087965 |Evidence Supports a Causal Model for Vitamin D in COVID-19 Outcomes] May 6 preprint
    • Excellent extensive use of Causal Influence AI to discover associations.
    • I have suspected that Causal Influence could be much better, far lower cost, and faster than the use of RCTs
  • [https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3586555|Evidence of Protective Role of Ultraviolet-B (UVB) Radiation in Reducing COVID-19 deaths] preprint May 7
    • "permanent unit increase in UVI is associated with a 2.2 % decline in daily growth rates of cumulative COVID-19 deaths [p < 0.01]
    • as well as a 1.9 % decline in the daily growth rates of CFR [p < 0.05]
    • 64 countries, 78 days, 6 UVI models
  • [https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3593258#.XrE0oF1wSjU.twitter |Vitamin D Level of Mild and Severe Elderly Cases of COVID-19: A Preliminary Report] May 5
    • 176 seniors in S. Asia - published in India
    • Image
  • Almost everyone with COVID-19 in a Louisiana ICU had low vitamin D – April 29, 2020
  • COVID-19 mortality rate highest North of 35 degrees latitude (Vitamin D) – April 20, 2020
  • COVID-19 was 19X more likely if low vitamin D (may be invalid data)– April 2020 Philippines
    • The raw data has strange gaps in the vitamin D levels
    • Image
  • Research Suggests a Link Between Vitamin D Deficiency and COVID-19 Deaths May 5
  • Indonesia preprint 13X if vitamin D insufficient,19X for patients who are vitamin D deficient.
    • VitaminDWiki has requested but has not yet access to the raw data
  • COVID-19 infections associated with very low vitamin D – Turin Italy – March 2020



Higher levels of vitamin D result in fewer COVID-19 problems


Groups which actively ignore Vitamin D possibility

  • The Wellcome-Gates COVID-19 Accelerator initiative expressly prohibits funding for Vitamins.

Why/How Vitamin D both treats and prevents virus

File not found.

Short URL for this section = https://is.gd/COVItaminD

25 most-recently changed items in Virus category in VitaminDWiki

Id Page Hits Last modification Creator Categories
11787 Does vitamin D (and C) help with Covid-19 - May 2020 948
22 Oct, 2020 12:29
admin Virus
12019 19X less COVID-19 infection if innate immune system activated – trial Oct 21, 2020 133
21 Oct, 2020 18:52
admin Immunity
12013 COVID-19 associated with low Vitamin D in China in the Spring - Sept 2020 83
18 Oct, 2020 13:02
admin Virus
12007 AI is examining 170,000 potential COVID-19 treatments, Vitamin D is one of only 6 found – Sept 4, 2020 506
18 Oct, 2020 09:48
admin Vitamin D Receptor
12010 9X COVID-19 survival in nursing home if had 80,000 IU dose of vitamin D in previous month – Oct 2020 277
16 Oct, 2020 23:30
admin Virus
12012 COVID-19 and Vitamin D - 14 studies as of Oct 16, 2020 126
16 Oct, 2020 16:33
admin Virus
11728 COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos 13362
16 Oct, 2020 12:41
admin Virus
12009 COVID-19 fought by Vitamin D in 43 studies - Oct 15, 2020 226
15 Oct, 2020 16:10
admin Virus
11795 COVID-19 resulted in 3.7X decrease in Irish Very Low Weight Births (Vitamin D) - June 2020 552
15 Oct, 2020 15:29
admin Pregnancy
3780 Vitamin D can inhibit enveloped virus (e.g. Herpes, Zoster, Epstein, Hepatitis, Ebola) – March 2011 41087
15 Oct, 2020 10:54
admin Virus
5894 Vitamin D and the anti-viral state – March 2010 3532
15 Oct, 2020 10:35
admin Virus
11681 Vitamin D supplementation could prevent and treat influenza, CORONAVIRUS, and pneumonia infections - March 2020 3915
15 Oct, 2020 10:31
admin Virus
11749 COVID-19 association with Vitamin D also being explored by Hollis and Wagner - April 2020 1237
15 Oct, 2020 10:29
admin Virus
11716 Global Push for RCTs in COVID-19 - April 4, 2020 621
15 Oct, 2020 10:26
admin Virus
11707 Preventing a COVID-19 pandemic with Vitamin D – Grant April 2020 1500
15 Oct, 2020 10:15
admin Virus
10823 How Vitamin D helps fight the cold, flu and other viruses - June 2019 484
15 Oct, 2020 10:10
admin Cost savings with Vitamin D
7470 Many Infectious diseases (virus) treated and prevented by Vitamin D – review July 2009 4384
15 Oct, 2020 10:03
admin Immunity
11958 Rate of COVID-19 test positive is 40 pcnt lower if high vitamin D (192,000 people) - Holick Sept 2020 585
15 Oct, 2020 00:05
admin Skin - Dark
11985 How Vitamin D Helps Fight COVID-19 - Grassroots Health Oct 2020 275
14 Oct, 2020 15:59
admin Virus
11580 COVID-19 Coronavirus can most likely be fought by Vitamin D 260266
12 Oct, 2020 14:12
admin Virus
12006 COVID-19 antibodies 2.6 X more likely if had symptoms and low vitamin D (UK hospital staff)– Oct 5 2020 190
11 Oct, 2020 19:32
admin Skin - Dark
12005 Vaccines are plan A for COVID-19 Immunity (no plan B) - Sept 11, 2020 164
10 Oct, 2020 17:58
admin Virus
12004 15 studies indicating that Vitamin D fights COVID-19 - Dr. Grimes Oct 9, 2020 1184
10 Oct, 2020 15:03
admin Virus
12000 UK parliament members starting to be interested in Vitamin D for COVID-19 – Oct 10, 2020 245
10 Oct, 2020 13:01
admin Vitamin D in Europe
11998 Vitamin D could knock out COVID-19 in 3 months – Dr. Matthews interview Oct 2020 207
08 Oct, 2020 14:53
admin Skin - Dark

Created by admin. Last Modification: Thursday May 14, 2020 13:26:01 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 9)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
13810 Strabismus map.jpg admin 13 May, 2020 11:45 81.86 Kb 454
13809 Strabismus.jpg admin 13 May, 2020 11:44 91.20 Kb 4400
13808 Scientific Strabismus.pdf PDF 2020 admin 13 May, 2020 11:44 1.39 Mb 216
See any problem with this page? Report it (FINALLY WORKS)