Plasma vitamin D levels in native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years of different ethnic origins ☆
Niveles plasmáticos de vitamina D en población autóctona y en poblaciones inmigrantes de diferentes etnias menores de 6 años de edad
Anales de Pediatría, Volume 82, Issue 5, May 2015, Pages 316-324, doi:10.1016/j.anpede.2015.04.003
J.M. Sánchez Muroa, D. Yeste Fernándezb, , , , A. Marín Muñoza, M. Fernández Canciob, L. Audí Parerab, A. Carrascosa Lezcanob
Map of Maghrebi = North Africa
- Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D
- NCAA athletes – one third had low levels of vitamin D, 19X more likely if black race – March 2015
- African immigrants: half are vitamin D deficient (based on Caucasian measures) – May 2015
The TOP DARK SKIN articles are here:
- Vitamin D, trauma, and blacks - Dr. Matthews interview with transcript - Jan 2019
- Infertility rate is 2X higher for blacks than whites (no mention of vitamin D, nor the man) – April 2014
- Why India's vitamin D deficiency is grim - 40 pages Feb 2014
- Vitamin D deficiency diseases in dark skinned people living far from equator – Meta-analysis Oct 2013
- Chart of Vitamin D levels vs race - April 2013
- Dark Skinned adults need more than 45 minutes of UK summer sun daily – June 2013
- Dr. Holick video on vitamin D - March 2013
- Forearm fracture 3.5X more often in black children with low levels of vitamin D – Sept 2012
- Pregnant blacks 50 pcnt more likely to be depressed if 3 ng less vitamin D – July 2012
- Half of the US will be people of color – wonder how many will be vitamin D deficient
- Survey finds that Non-Caucasians do not feel that people need sun exposure – July 2012
- Extra 4,000 IU daily raised the vitamin D levels of blacks to that of whites – July 2012
- Reasons for low response to vitamin D
Nutritional rickets is an emergent disease in Spain, and occurs particularly in black and dark-skinned infants and children from immigrant populations. The aim of this study was to ascertain the vitamin D reserve in a population of native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years.
Population and methods
A prospective study was conducted at a Primary Healthcare Centre in Salt (Girona). Patients: 307 children with the following origin and race distribution: Caucasian (n = 85; 28%), Sub-Saharan (n = 101; 32.5%); Maghrebí (n = 87, 28.0%); Central-American (n = 20; 6.4%) and Indo-Pakistani (n = 14; 4.5%). The biochemistry blood parameters studied were calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxivitamin D, and parathormone. A nutritional survey was used to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake and degree of sun exposure.
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was detected in Caucasians (8%), Sub-Saharans (18%), Central-Americans (20%), Maghrebís (34.5%), and Indo-Pakistanis (64%). Of the children studied (n = 9), 2.9% had serious vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/ml); only one child of Sub-Saharan origin met the biochemical criteria for classical rickets. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children not receiving vitamin D supplements in the first year of life.
Plasma vitamin D concentrations were deficient in 22.5% of children under the age of six, being more prevalent in children of Indo-Pakistani and Maghrebí origin.