Cardiorespiratory fitness in males, and upper limbs muscular strength in females, are positively related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations in European adolescents: the HELENA study
QJM (2013) 106 (9): 809-821. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hct089
L.A. Moreno4,16 and
On Behalf Of The Helena Study Group
From the 1ImFine Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences (INEF), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda/Martín Fierro 7, 28040, Madrid, Spain, 2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Ghent University, UZ 2 Block A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium, 3CHERC (Chidren's Health and Exercise Research Centre) School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Heavitree Road, Exeter, EX1 2LU, United Kingdom, 4GENUD Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development Research Group, University of Zaragoza, 42 Corona de Aragon 50009, Zaragoza, Spain, 5Dietary Exposure Assessment Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08, France, 6Institut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften - Humanernährung, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11-13, AVZ 1, 5. Etage, 53115 Bonn, Germany, 7National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina, 546-00178 Roma, Italy, 8Inserm U995, IFR114, University of Lille 2, 42, rue Paul Duez 59000 LILLE Lille, France, 9Institut Pasteur de Lille & Inserm U 744 & Université Lille Nord de France, 1 rue de Pr Calmette, 59019 Lille Cedex, France, 10Research Foundation—Flanders, Egmonstraat 5, 1000 Brussels, Belgium, 11Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, Granada University, Av de Madrid, 11, 18012, Granada, Spain, 12Research Institute of Child Nutrition Dortmund, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Heinstück 11, 44225 Dortmund, Germany, 13Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete School of Medicine, Iraclion, Crete, Argonafton 47, K.Ilioypolis,16346 Athens,Greece, 14Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, 70 El. Venizelou Ave., Kallithea, 17671, Athens, Greece, 15Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna. A-1090 Vienna, Alserstr. 14, Austria and 16Escuela Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Departamento de Fisiatría y Enfermería, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza España
Address correspondence to Dr J. Valtueña Santamaría, Departamento de Salud y Rendimiento Humano, Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte-INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/ Martín Fierro, 7, 28040 Madrid, Spain. email: jara.valtuena at upm.es
Received December 30, 2012, Revision received March 6, 2013.
Background: High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<75 nmol/l) has been previously reported in European adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency has been related to physical fitness and adiposity but it is not clearly known whether this relationship applies to growing children and adolescents.
Aim: To determine how body composition and physical fitness are related to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents.
Design: The HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence-CSS study was a multi-centre cross-sectional study.
Methods: Plasma 25(OH)D, body composition and physical fitness measures were obtained in 1006 European adolescents (470 males) aged 12.5–17.5 years. Stepwise regression and ANCOVA were performed by gender using 25(OH)D as dependent variable, with body composition, physical fitness as independent variables controlling for age, seasonality and latitude.
Results: For males,
- maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) (B = 0.189) and
- body mass index (BMI) (B = −0.124)
were independently associated with 25(OH)D concentrations (both P < 0.05).
- handgrip strength (B = 0.168; P < 0.01)
was independently associated with 25(OH)D concentrations.
Those adolescents at lower BMI and high fitness score presented significant higher 25(OH)D concentrations than those at lower fitness score in the other BMI groups (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory fitness and upper limbs muscular strength are positively associated with 25(OH)D concentrations in male and female adolescents, respectively. Adiposity in males and low fat free mass in females are related to hypovitaminosis D. The interaction between fitness and BMI has a positive effect on 25(OH)D concentrations. Therapeutic interventions to correct the high rates of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents should consider physical fitness.
- 80 percent of teens in Europe had less than 30 ng of vitamin D – Aug 2011 another HELENA report
- Overview Sports and vitamin D which has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:
- Faster reaction time
- Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
- Less sore/tired after a workout
- Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
- Bones which do break heal much more quickly
- Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
- Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
- Professional indoor athletes are starting to supplement with vitamin D or use vitamin D beds
- Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
- The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
- Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
- Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
- Sports and Vitamin D category