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Somewhat less Type 1 Diabetes in Wales recently – perhaps more sun or more vitamin D – March 2021

The changing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in wales: Effect of gender and season at diagnosis and birth

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2021 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108739
J.N. Harvey; R. Hibbs; M.J. Maguire; H.O'. Connell; J.W. Gregory


  • The incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Wales has peaked.
  • Case numbers vary with season suggesting an influence of vitamin D.
  • Increasing hours of sunlight since 1980 may be contributing.

Items in both categories Children and Diabetes are listed here:

Determinants of the changing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes remain uncertain. We determined the recent time-trend of type 1 diabetes incidence in Wales and explored the role of vitamin D by evaluating the influence of season both at diagnosis and at birth.

Data from all Welsh paediatric units 1990-2019, and from primary care to determine ascertainment.

Log-linear modelling indicated a non-linear secular trend in incidence with peak and subsequent decline. The peak occurred around June 2010: 31∙3 cases/year/100,000 children aged <15y. It occurred earlier in children younger at diagnosis and earlier in boys. There were more cases in males aged <2y and >12y but more in females aged 9-10y. More were diagnosed in winter. Also, children born in winter had less risk of future diabetes.

The risk of developing type 1 diabetes before age 15y in Wales is no longer increasing. The data on season are consistent with a preventative role for vitamin D both during pregnancy and later childhood. Metereological Office data shows increasing hours of sunlight since 1980 likely to increase vitamin D levels with less diabetes. Additional dietary supplementation with vitamin D might further reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes.

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Created by admin. Last Modification: Saturday March 13, 2021 17:35:36 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 1)