The changing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in wales: Effect of gender and season at diagnosis and birth
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2021 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108739
J.N. Harvey; R. Hibbs; M.J. Maguire; H.O'. Connell; J.W. Gregory
- The incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Wales has peaked.
- Case numbers vary with season suggesting an influence of vitamin D.
- Increasing hours of sunlight since 1980 may be contributing.
Items in both categories Children and Diabetes are listed here:
- Somewhat less Type 1 Diabetes in Wales recently – perhaps more sun or more vitamin D – March 2021
- Type 1 Diabetes (Autoimmune) and Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor and Cathelicidin - Dec 2020
- T1 Diabetes 3X lower risk if high vitamin D (over 40 ng) – Meta-analysis Nov 2020
- Poor CYP2R1 gene results in lower vitamin D and 2X increase in T1 Diabetes – Sept 2019
- Milk Consumption Is strong linked to Type 1 Diabetes – Dr. Greger Nov 2019
- T1 Diabetes treated by Vitamin D and Omega-3 (many other studies agree) Jan 2018
- Children in India – 1 in 7 extremely low Vitamin D, 1 in 10 prediabetic – Sept 2019
- Type 1 diabetes trial having problems getting participants – too many taking Vitamin D or Omega-3 – Aug 2019
- Type 1 Diabetes is prevented and treated by Vitamin D – review of 16 studies – Sept 2019
- T1 Diabetes reduction by high Omega-3 and Vitamin D – GRH ongoing observation
- Type 1 Diabetes prevention with Vitamin D and Omega-3 – Symposium April 2019
- Type 1 Diabetes risk increased if high postpartum Vitamin D binding protein – Jan 2019
- T1 Diabetes – how it may be prevented and treated by Vitamin D – Dec 2018
- Vitamin D and Omega-3 may treat Type 1 Diabetes – RCT 2024
- Type 1 Diabetes is increasing – decreased vitamin D is one of the many possible reasons – Sept 2018
- Early Type 1 Diabetes May Shorten Women’s Lives by 18 Years - Aug 2018
- Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) 1.6 X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 2018
- Type 1 Diabetes 14 percent more likely with 2 Vitamin D Receptor mutations – Oct 2017
- T1 Diabetes associated with many other autoimmune diseases (all related to low vitamin D) – May 2017
- Vitamin D deficiency is associated with prediabetes in obese Swedish children – Oct 2016
- Type 1 diabetes 1.6 times more likely if a Vitamin D Receptor problem – Feb 2017
- Type II Diabetes in children in India increased 4 X in 20 years – Nov 2016
- Type 1 diabetes risk not decreased if add 400 IU vitamin D while pregnant (no surprise) – Dec 2016
- Diabetes in child not prevented by a tiny amount of vitamin D during pregnancy – Nov 2015
- Diabetes (Type 1) increasing 4 percent per year, now 30,000 in the UK - May 2015
- T1 diabetes in children helped with two doses of 150,000 IU of vitamin D and Calcium – March 2015
- Type I diabetes in dark skin children associated with low vitamin D if far from equator – Jan 2015
- Type 1 diabetes helped with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – Nov 2014
- T1 Diabetes associated with low vitamin D - Nov 2014
- Type I Diabetes stopped increasing in Finland after Vitamin D levels were raised – July 2014
- Diabetic children often need more than 7,000 IU of vitamin D – June 2014
- T1 Diabetes 35 percent more likely if 10 degrees further from equator (less vitamin D) – June 2014
- Higher vitamin D at birth associated with less diabetes and obesity 35 years later – Jan 2014
- Type 1 diabetes 3.5X more frequent if low vitamin D - Medscape CME Dec 2012
- Metabolic Syndrome in children is associated with low vitamin D – review Jan 2013
- Like their diabetic mothers, infants had low vitamin D and were slightly diabetic – May 2012
- Type I diabetes 2X more likely if mother had low vitamin D – Jan 2012
Determinants of the changing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes remain uncertain. We determined the recent time-trend of type 1 diabetes incidence in Wales and explored the role of vitamin D by evaluating the influence of season both at diagnosis and at birth.
Data from all Welsh paediatric units 1990-2019, and from primary care to determine ascertainment.
Log-linear modelling indicated a non-linear secular trend in incidence with peak and subsequent decline. The peak occurred around June 2010: 31∙3 cases/year/100,000 children aged <15y. It occurred earlier in children younger at diagnosis and earlier in boys. There were more cases in males aged <2y and >12y but more in females aged 9-10y. More were diagnosed in winter. Also, children born in winter had less risk of future diabetes.
The risk of developing type 1 diabetes before age 15y in Wales is no longer increasing. The data on season are consistent with a preventative role for vitamin D both during pregnancy and later childhood. Metereological Office data shows increasing hours of sunlight since 1980 likely to increase vitamin D levels with less diabetes. Additional dietary supplementation with vitamin D might further reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes.