Modification of the association between smoking status and severity of coronary stenosis by vitamin D in patients suspected of coronary heart disease.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Sep;95(36):e4817. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004817.
Li K 1, Yang X, Wang L, Chen M, Zhao W, Xu L, Yang X.
1 Heart Center of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.
Current study only shows an association, but . .
Perhaps a smoker can have fewer health problems by taking Vitamin D
See also VitaminDWiki
Smoking reduces vitamin D contains the following
Two pathways are often proposed for how smoking decreases vitamin D:
1) Smoking decreases Calcium. and Vitamin D is used up in replacing the Calcium
2) Smoking injures the body, and vitamin D is used up in repairing the body
It appears that taking Vitamin D while smoking will:
1) Decrease the incidence of the many health problems associated with smoking - even lung cancer
2) Decrease the desire to smoke (take fewer smoking breaks?)
3) Increase breathing capacity
Opinion: If unable to stop smoking,
or a previous smoker,
or getting 2nd hand smoke,
please start Vitamin D and perhaps Omega-3 (decrease depression, inflamation)
Vitamin D should help people quit smoking See bottom of page Smoking reduces vitamin D
1) Reduces associated weight gain
2) Reduces associated depression
A $1 tax on each cigarette would just pay for the additional costs imposed on society
240 Billion cigarettes sold a year in the US in 2016
Additional US costs due to smoking = $300 Billion health, productivity
Given both smoking and vitamin D are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) via inflammation and smoking may interfere with the local antiinflammatory effects of vitamin D. We hypothesized that the relationship between smoking and severity of CHD may be modified by vitamin D.A cross-sectional study was conducted. 25-OH vitamin D values were determined in 348 consecutive patients (mean age 62.4 ± 10.5 years; 56.3% male) undergoing coronary angiography at the Heart Center of Chaoyang Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University between the period of September 2014 and May 2015. We categorized the patients into 2 groups based on 25-OH vitamin D levels, that is, severe hypovitaminosis D (25-OH vitamin D < 10 ng/mL) and higher vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D > = 10 ng/mL). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of severe coronary stenosis or higher Gensini score across three smoking status, that is, never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers in severe hypovitaminosis D and higher vitamin D groups, respectively. Of these patients, we identified 212 (60.9%) cases of severe CHD and 161 (46.3%) cases of severe hypovitaminosis D.
Multivariable logistic regression model showed the ORs of severe CHD were 1.94 (95% confidence interval CI: 0.47, 7.98) for former smokers and 2.62 (95% CI: 0.83, 8.24) for current smokers, compared with never smokers in group with severe hypovitaminosis D (P-trend = 0.005). In contrast, smoking was not found to be significantly associated with severe CHD in group with higher 25-OH vitamin D (P-trend = 0.115). We found a significant interaction between smoking status and vitamin D on presence of severe CHD (P-interaction = 0.015). In terms of Gensini score as a dependent variable, similar results were identified. Our finding indicated the association between smoking and severity of CHD appeared to be substantially stronger among patients with severe hypovitaminosis D as compared with those with higher vitamin D levels.
This suggests vitamin D sufficiency may have a protective effect against the damaging effects of smoking on coronary artery. Future cohort studies are warranted to confirm this finding.
PMID: 27603397 PMCID: PMC5023920 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004817