Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab . 2021 Jan 6. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2020
Prateek Lohia 1, Paul Nguyen 1, Neel Patel 1, Shweta Kapur 1
Background The immunomodulating role of vitamin D might play a role in COVID-19 disease.
Objective To study the association between vitamin D and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Methods Retrospective cohort study on COVID-19 patients with documented vitamin D levels within the last year. Vitamin D levels were grouped as ≥ 20 ng/mL or <20 ng/mL. Main outcomes were mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, new DVT or pulmonary embolism, and ICU admission.
Results A total of 270 patients (mean (SD) age, 63.81 (14.69) years); 117 (43.3%) males; 216 (80%) African Americans; 139 (51.5%) in 65 and older age group were included. Vitamin D levels were less than 20 ng/ml in 95 (35.2%) patients. During admission, 72 patients (26.7%) died, 59 (21.9%) needed mechanical ventilation, and 87 (32.2%) required ICU. Vitamin D levels showed no significant association with mortality (OR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.39 - 1.24; p=0.21), need for mechanical ventilation (OR=1.23; 95% CI, 0.68 - 2.24; p=0.49), new DVT or PE(OR= 0.92; 95% CI, 0.16- 5.11; p=1.00) or ICU admission (OR=1.38; 95% CI, 0.81 - 2.34; p=0.23).
Conclusion We did not find any significant association of vitamin D levels with mortality, the need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and the development of thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients.