Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:509-14. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S42838. Epub 2013 May 3.
Lapid MI, Cha SS, Takahashi PY.
Division of Outpatient Consultation, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. lapid.maria at mayo.edu
PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency may affect the mood of people who are deficient. We investigated vitamin D status in older primary care patients and explored associations with depression.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted and association analyses were performed. Primary care patients at a single academic medical center who were ≥60 years with serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of depression. Frailty scores and medical comorbidity burden scores were collected as predictors.
RESULTS: There were 1618 patients with a mean age of 73.8 years (±8.48). The majority (81%) had optimal (≥25 ng/mL) 25(OH)D range, but 17% met mild-moderate (10-24 ng/mL) and 3% met severe (<10 ng/mL) deficiencies. Those with severe deficiency were older (P < 0.001), more frail (P < 0.001), had higher medical comorbidity burden (P < 0.001), and more frequent depression (P = 0.013).
The 694 (43%) with depression had a lower 25(OH)D than the nondepressed group (32.7 vs 35.0, P = 0.002).
25(OH)D was negatively correlated with
- age (r = -0.070, P = 0.005),
- frailty (r = -0.113, P < 0.001), and
- medical comorbidity burden (r = -0.101, P < 0.001).
A 25(OH)D level was correlated with depression (odds ratio = 0.990 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.983-0.998, P = 0.012). Those with severe vitamin D deficiency were twice as likely to have depression (odds ratio = 2.093 with 95% CI 1.092-4.011, P = 0.026).
CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency was present in a fifth of this older primary care population. Lower vitamin D levels were associated with depression. Those with severe deficiency were older and more likely had depression.
This paper defines optimal as > 25 ng
Most research papers define sufficient as > 20ng or >30 ng
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