High levels of vitamin D in relation to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated C-reactive protein.
Psychiatry Res. 2015 Jun 10. pii: S0165-1781(15)00338-8. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.051. [Epub ahead of print]
Zhu DM1, Liu Y1, Zhang AG1, Chu ZX1, Wu Q1, Li H1, Ge JF2, Dong Y1, Zhu P3.
There is growing evidence on the novel role of vitamin D in reducing inflammation. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia, and high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia and 93 family-matched controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Plasma concentrations of CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured using commercial kits. Information about demographic characteristics and clinic data were obtained by interviews or medical records.
Mean levels of CRP and 25(OH)D were 43.3% higher and 26.7% lower for patients compared to controls, respectively. 25(OH)D were inversely associated with CRP in the patients, but not in the controls. The proportions of patients significantly increased with increasing quartiles of CRP, while significantly decreased with increasing quartiles of 25(OH)D. Among individuals with high CRP, participants with high 25(OH)D have significantly lower proportion (adjusted OR =0.217, 95% CI 0.063, 0.751) of schizophrenia compared to those with low 25(OH)D. The evidence suggested that high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Overview Schizophrenia and Vitamin D contains the following summary
Many reasons to think that schizophrenia is associated with low vitamin D
1) 97% of patients with schizophrenia are vitamin D deficient
2) Schizophrenia varies with latitude (UVB) by 10X (controversy)
3) Schizophrenia is more common in those with dark skin (when away from the equator)
4) Schizophrenia is associated with low natal vitamin D
5) Schizophrenia has been increasing around the world when vitamin D has been decreasing (controversy)
6) Schizophrenia is associated with low birth rate, which is associated with low vitamin D
7) Schizophrenia is associated with Autism which is associated with low vitamin D
8) Schizophrenia Bulletin Editorial (Jan 2014) speculated that Vitamin D could be a major player
9) Schizophrenia 2X more likely if low vitamin D - meta-analysis
10) Schizophrenia increased 40 % for Spring births after Danes stopped vitamin D fortification
11) Schizophrenia is associated with season of birth
12) Schizophrenia is associated with poor Vitamin D Receptor genes
13) Schizophrenia risk is decreased if give Vitamin D after birth
14) Schizophrenia symptoms reduced when Vitamin D levels are restored
- Vitamin D, inflammation and schizophrenia: What’s the relationship? July 2015
” Participants with both high C-reactive protein and low vitamin D status had the highest proportion of schizophrenia. Those with high C-reactive protein levels and low vitamin D status had 36.01 increased odds of having schizophrenia compared to those with low C-reactive protein levels and high vitamin D status.”
. . . “low vitamin D levels may contribute to the development of schizophrenia, or low vitamin D status may be merely a result of staying indoors more”