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Saudi females twice as likely to be vitamin D deficient as males (cloth) – July 2015

Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiometabolic Risks: A Juxtaposition of Arab Adolescents and Adults

PLOS ONE: July 17, 2015DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131315
Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Yousef Al-Saleh, Naji Aljohani, Majed Alokail, Omar Al-Attas, Abdullah M. Alnaami, Shaun Sabico, Maha Alsulaimani, …

< 10 ng of vitamin D = deficient

FemaleMaleRatio
Teens 47 % 19 %2.4 X
Adults37 %18 %2.2 X


The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent boys and girls, remain understudied. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 2225 apparently healthy Saudi adolescents (1187 boys and 1038 girls, aged 13-17 years old) and 830 adults (368 men and 462 women, aged 18-50 years old) were respectively recruited from different public schools and medical practices within Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were taken and fasting blood samples withdrawn to examine serum glucose and lipid profile by routine analysis and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by ELISA. Almost half of the girls (47.0%) had vitamin D deficiency as compared to only 19.4% of the boys (p<0.001), 36.8% of the adult women and 17.7% of the adult men (p<0.001). Furthermore, in boys there were more significant inverse associations between serum 25(OH)vitamin D levels and cardiometabolic indices than girls, while in contrast women had more significant associations than men.

Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) [OR 3.47 (CI1.26-5.55); p<0.05] and pre-DM [OR 2.47 (CI 1.48-4.12); p<0.01] in boys. Furthermore, vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in boys [OR 2.75 (CI 1.1-7.1); p<0.05]. These associations for DMT2 and abdominal obesity were not observed in adult males, girls and adult women. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and hyperglycemia is high among Arab adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency is mostly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescent Arab boys. This indicates a sex- and age-related disadvantage for boys with low vitamin D status and challenges the extra-skeletal protection of vitamin D correction in adolescent females.

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Note: Saudi women are the most heavily clothed


VitaminDWiki pages containing CLOTH in title (21 as of Dec 2021)

Items found: 22
Title Modified
More hijab clothing may have resulted in 6X increase in Multiple Sclerosis in Tehran – May 2013 23 Aug, 2023
Concealing Clothing in Canada: half the level of vitamin D in blood – May 2012 22 Apr, 2022
Saudi females twice as likely to be vitamin D deficient as males (cloth) – July 2015 27 Dec, 2021
Ultra-orthodox Jews also suffer from 10 ng vitamin D levels (cloth) – Nov 2010 10 Dec, 2021
Need 1 hour of noon sun to get Hijab women to 20 ng of Vitamin D (cloth) – June 2019 10 Dec, 2021
COVID-19 increased 3.5 X if Ultra-Orthodox (cloth) Sept, 2020 10 Dec, 2021
400 IU of vitamin D helped a few adults (Orthodox Jewish mothers - heavy clothing) – 2001 10 Dec, 2021
Jordanian women vitamin D – 16 ng if Western clothing – 12 ng otherwise – Aug 2011 07 Aug, 2021
Burka clothing reduces vitamin D levels, which causes pregnancy problems – Oct 2015 07 Aug, 2021
Ultra-Orthodox Jews have concealing clothing, high levels of COVID-19, and ultra low Vitamin D - Feb 2021 07 Aug, 2021
Concealing clothing resulted in only 8 ng vitamin D – Feb 2011 07 Aug, 2021
Concealing clothing often results in low vitamin D levels (Sikh children in this case) – Aug 2021 07 Aug, 2021
Concealing clothing worn by Christian Orthodox monks result in low vitamin D (9 ng) – Nov 2018 14 Nov, 2018
Weak bones (Osteopenia) in 93 percent of women in Pakistan attending University and wearing Islamic clothes – March 2017 18 Mar, 2017
Permethrin-dipped clothing kills Zika mosquitoes even after 10 washings – Oct 2016 09 Sep, 2016
3 primates have higher levels of vitamin D than clothed humans, level varies between individuals – April 2015 10 May, 2015
Iran Multiple Sclerosis review finds huge increase in women (no mention of clothing) – Nov 2013 10 Aug, 2014
If heavily clothed, very little vitamin D – Dec 2012 22 Mar, 2014
Breast Cancer patients wearing concealing clothing were 13X more likely to be vitamin D deficient – March 2014 14 Mar, 2014
Excessive clothes and being indoors results in very low vitamin D levels – Nov 2011 01 Dec, 2013
UPF = SPF for clothing 01 Feb, 2012
Skin color and clothing but not sunscreens reduce vitamin D – Oct 2010 16 Oct, 2010

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Created by admin. Last Modification: Monday December 27, 2021 14:56:55 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 8)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
5678 Juxtaposition.pdf admin 18 Jul, 2015 213.84 Kb 1012