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Risk of death after bone fracture was 6.6 X higher if less than 10 ng of vitamin D – June 2017

Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels predict fracture risk: results from the 15-year follow-up of the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Cohort Study.

Osteoporos Int. 2017 Jun;28(6):1903-1913. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-3967-6. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
Tamaki J1, Iki M2, Sato Y3, Kajita E4, Nishino H5, Akiba T6, Matsumoto T7, Kagamimori S8; JPOS Study Group.

We found that community-dwelling women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <20 ng/mL compared to levels ≥20 ng/mL indicated increased risks for clinical, non-vertebral, and fragility fractures during 5 years. Furthermore, the increased risks of non-vertebral fractures remained significant in 10 and 15 years after adjusting for age and bone mineral density.

We examined whether total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are associated with fracture risk over 15 years in a Japanese female cohort.

Of 1437 community-dwelling women aged ≥50 years in the baseline survey, 1236 provided information regarding fractures during a 15-year follow-up period. The analysis included 1211 women without early menopause or diseases affecting bone metabolism.

Over 15 years, 269 clinical (224 non-vertebral, 149 fragility) fracture events were confirmed. Incidence rates categorized by 25(OH)D levels (<10, 10-20, 20-30, and ≥30 ng/mL) indicated a significant divergence for any clinical fractures in 5 years (log rank test p = 0.016) and for non-vertebral fractures in 5, 10, and 15 years (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.017, respectively). Hazard ratios (HRs) for 25(OH)D levels <10 and 10-20 ng/mL compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL during 5 years indicated significances for clinical fractures (HR 4.93 with p = 0.009, HR 3.00 with p = 0.034) and for non-vertebral fractures (HR 6.55 with p = 0.005, HR 3.49 with p = 0.036). Those with levels <20 ng/mL compared to those with levels ≥20 ng/mL indicated significant increased risks for clinical fractures (HR 1.72 with p = 0.010), non-vertebral fractures (HR 2.45 with p < 0.001), and fragility fractures (HR 2.00 with p = 0.032) in 5 years. The HR of non-vertebral fractures for levels <20 ng/mL remained significant during 15 years (HR 1.42 with p = 0.012) after adjustment for age and femoral neck bone mineral density.

CONCLUSIONS: Low 25(OH)D levels, especially <20 ng/mL, were associated with elevated fracture risks in Japanese women.

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