J Pak Med Assoc. 2010 Sep;60(9):729-32.
Haider N, Nagi AG, Khan KM.
Department of Paediatric Medicine, National Institute of Child Health, Karachi.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of nutritional rickets in children hospitalized with severe pneumonia.
METHOD: This study was carried out at the department of paediatric medicine at National Institute of Child Health Karachi. It is a case series done over a period of six months from 15th November 2008 to 15th may 2009. Patients admitted (n=137) with severe pneumonia were included in the study and were investigated for presence of rickets with serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Those having low to normal calcium low phosphorus and raised alkaline phosphatase were labeled as having rickets. All data collected were entered on Performa. Children with familial, vitamin D dependent/resistant rickets, secondary rickets, and cerebral palsy or on anti convulsant therapy were excluded from this study.
RESULTS: Out of 137 patients, with severe pneumonia, 83 were male and 54 female. Frequency of nutritional rickets in children with severe pneumonia was observed in 101(74%) cases. Rickets was more common in 2 to 12 months of age, i.e., 79.8% (67/84) and in those children who were breast fed (85.3% vs. 40%). Frequency was higher in those children who were not exposed to sunlight.
CONCLUSION: Pneumonia is a very common presentation of rickets. This study suggests that rickets may be more common in children who are breast fed and those who have less exposure to sunlight.
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