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Recent Advancements on COVID-19: A Comprehensive Review - Dec 2021

International Journal of General Medicine downloaded from https://www.dovepress.com/by 179.61.173.48 on 25-Dec-2021
Received: 15 September 2021 Accepted: 11 November 2021 Published: 24 December 2021
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Heshu Sulaiman Rahman1,2 Darya Saeed Abdulateef 01 Narmin Hamaamin Hussen3 Aso Faiq Salih4 Hemn Hassan Othman 5 Trfa Mahmood Abdulla 1 Shirwan Hama Salih Omer1 Talar Hamaali Mohammed1 Mohammed Omar Mohammed Masrur Sleman Aziz7 Rasedee Abdullah 8
'Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniyah, Republic of Iraq; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimaniyah, Republic of Iraq; 3Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniyah, Republic of Iraq; 4Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniyah, Republic of Iraq; 5Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniyah, Republic of Iraq; 6Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniyah, Republic of Iraq; 7Department of Biology, College of Education, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Republic of Iraq; 8Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, 43400, Malaysia

Over the last few decades, there have been several global outbreaks of severe respiratory infections. The causes of these outbreaks were coronaviruses that had infected birds, mammals and humans. The outbreaks predominantly caused respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract symptoms and other mild to very severe clinical signs. The current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a rapidly spreading illness affecting millions of people worldwide. Among the countries most affected by the disease are the United States of America (USA), India, Brazil, and Russia, with France recording the highest infection, morbidity, and mortality rates. Since early January 2021, thousands of articles have been published on COVID-19. Most of these articles were consistent with the reports on the mode of transmission, spread, duration, and severity of the sickness. Thus, this review comprehensively discusses the most critical aspects of COVID-19, including etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, transmission, pathological changes, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control, and vaccination.
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