JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(5):703-711. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0225.
Kirsti Uusi-Rasi, PhD1,2; Radhika Patil, MSc1; Saija Karinkanta, PhD1; Pekka Kannus, MD, PhD1,3,4; Kari Tokola, MSc1; Christel Lamberg-Allardt, PhD5; Harri Sievänen, DSc1
Importance While vitamin D supplementation and exercise are recommended for prevention of falls for older people, results regarding these 2 factors are contradictory.
Home dwelling women – age 70-80
Had fallen at least once in previous year
2 year experiment
|Placebo||800 IU||Exercise||Exercise |
and 800 IU
|Falls rates |
per 100 person years
|Injurious fall rates |
per 100 person years
See also VitaminDWiki
Overview Fractures and Falls and Vitamin D 2000 IU of vitamin D substantially reduce falls
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Falls/Fracture and Meta-analysis
- Hip fractures not prevented by Vitamin D (800 IU daily or large quarterly or annual doses) – meta-analysis – Dec 2019
- Vitamin K (any amount and any kind) reduced bone fractures by 24 percent – meta-analysis – May 2019
- Vitamin D not help fractures and falls if not vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis Oct 2018
- Fractures not reduced by small amounts of vitamin D - meta-analysis Dec 2017
- Preventing Falls in Older Adults – Vitamin D combination is the best - JAMA Meta-analysis Nov 2017
- Hip fracture 58 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2017
- Fracture risk reduced somewhat by 800 IU of vitamin D and Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Acute fracture patients – 70 percent were vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis Sept 2015
- Falls not prevented by vitamin D given every 3 months or less often – meta-analysis Jan 2015
- Vitamin D prevents falls – majority of meta-analyses conclude – meta-meta analysis Feb 2015
- Vitamin D and fractures – 24 meta-analyses and counting – Dec 2014
- Bone fractures reduced by a minimum of 800 IU vitamin D and Calcium – meta-meta-analysis March 2014
- Fractures reduced with any amount of vitamin D and some Calcium - Cochraine April 2014
- Fallers often had less than 20 ng of vitamin D – meta-analysis April 2014
- Hip fractures greatly reduced by sunshine, vitamin D, and vitamin K – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Vitamin D may prevent falls and fractures without Calcium – an overview of 9 meta-analysis – Oct 2012
- Hip fractures reduced 30 percent with 800 IU of vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2012
- Vitamin D reduces falls – meta-analysis Oct 2011
- Active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) cut in half the fractures following organ transplant – meta-analysis Aug 2011
- 1000 IU minimum to decrease falls and fractures Swiss - 2009
- Meta-analysis of falls and 800+ IU of vitamin D found good results – June 2010
- 800 IU vitamin D reduces falls - Dec 2009
Objective To determine the effectiveness of targeted exercise training and vitamin D supplementation in reducing falls and injurious falls among older women.
Design, Setting, and Participants A 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled vitamin D and open exercise trial conducted between April 2010 and March 2013 in Tampere, Finland. Participants were 409 home-dwelling women 70 to 80 years old. The main inclusion criteria were at least 1 fall during the previous year, no use of vitamin D supplements, and no contraindication to exercise.
Interventions Four study groups, including placebo without exercise, vitamin D (800 IU/d) without exercise, placebo and exercise, and vitamin D (800 IU/d) and exercise.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was monthly reported falls. Injurious falls and the number of fallers and injured fallers were reported as secondary outcomes. In addition, bone density, physical functioning (muscle strength, balance, and mobility), and vitamin D metabolism were assessed.
Results Intent-to-treat analyses showed that neither vitamin D nor exercise reduced falls. Fall rates per 100 person-years were 118.2, 132.1, 120.7, and 113.1 in the placebo without exercise, vitamin D without exercise, placebo and exercise, and vitamin D and exercise study groups, respectively; however, injurious fall rates were 13.2, 12.9, 6.5, and 5.0, respectively. Hazard ratios for injured fallers were significantly lower among exercisers with vitamin D (0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.83) and without vitamin D (0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.99). Vitamin D maintained femoral neck bone mineral density and increased tibial trabecular density slightly. However, only exercise improved muscle strength and balance. Vitamin D did not enhance exercise effects on physical functioning.
Conclusions and Relevance The rate of injurious falls and injured fallers more than halved with strength and balance training in home-dwelling older women, while neither exercise nor vitamin D affected the rate of falls. Exercise improved physical functioning. Future research is needed to determine the role of vitamin D in the enhancement of strength, balance, and mobility.
Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00986466
Video commentary about this an a second study had the following graphic of the data