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RDA of Vitamins and minerals reduced incarceration by 2,993 dollars per prisoner – RCT Jan 2021

The Effects of Vitamin-Mineral Supplements on Serious Rule Violations in Correctional Facilities for Young Adult Male Inmates: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Crime & Delinquency January 25, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128721989073
Stephen Schoenthaler, David Gast, Erik J. Giltay, ...


Those getting RDA violated fewer rules and so got paroled earlier
Total savings for the reduced incarceration time was $449,000 for 150 participants
15 weeks of just RDA for 150 prisoners might cost $449.
Note: The Return On Investment (ROI) =100X
Note: This RCT was done 30 years ago: the RDA had only 200 IU of vitamin D and no Omega-3
Note: How much might be saved by giving RDA to all prisoners, school children, etc?

We investigated whether vitamin-mineral supplementation could reduce serious rule violations. In this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, young adult male inmates were included. For 15 weeks, they received a daily dose with vitamin-mineral supplements of approximately 100% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) (n = 149), or a higher-dose formula (n = 150), or placebo (n = 150). Serious rule violations were the primary outcome. In the lower-dose group there were 39% fewer rule violations than in the placebo group (relative risk = .61; 95% confidence interval CI:.41–.90, p = .01). In the higher-dose group the difference did not reach statistical significance. About 100% RDA, but not higher doses supplements, resulted in less serious rule violations than placebo.
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Effects of nutritional supplements on aggression, rule‐breaking, and psychopathology among young adult prisoners - 2009

Aggressive Behaviourr: 14 December 2009 https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20335
Ap Zaalberg Henk Nijman Erik Bulten Luwe Stroosma Cees van der Staak

Objective: In an earlier study, improvement of dietary status with food supplements led to a reduction in antisocial behavior among prisoners. Based on these earlier findings, a study of the effects of food supplements on aggression, rule‐breaking, and psychopathology was conducted among young Dutch prisoners.
Methods: Two hundred and twenty‐one young adult prisoners (mean age=21.0, range 18–25 years) received nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids or placebos, over a period of 1–3 months.
Results: As in the earlier (British) study, reported incidents were significantly reduced (P=.017, one‐tailed) in the active condition (n=115), as compared with placebo (n=106). Other assessments, however, revealed no significant reductions in aggressiveness or psychiatric symptoms.
Conclusion: As the incidents reported concerned aggressive and rule‐breaking behavior as observed by the prison staff, the results are considered to be promising. However, as no significant improvements were found in a number of other (self‐reported) outcome measures, the results should be interpreted with caution.
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Antisocial behavious of your prisoners reduced by Omega-3 RCT Jan 2018

__Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners. Randomised, placebo-controlled trial
Published online by Cambridge University Press: 02 January 2018

Background: There is evidence that offenders consume diets lacking in essential nutrients and this could adversely affect their behaviour.

Aims: To test empirically if physiologically adequate intakes of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids cause a reduction in antisocial behaviour.

Method: Experimental, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of nutritional supplements on 231 young adult prisoners, comparing disciplinary offences before and during supplementation.

Results: Compared with placebos, those receiving the active capsules committed an average of 26.3% (95% CI 8.3-44.33%) fewer offences (P=0.03, two-tailed). Compared to baseline, the effect on those taking active supplements for a minimum of 2 weeks (n=172) was an average 35.1% (95% CI 16.3-53.9%) reduction of offences (P < 0.001, two-tailed), whereas placebos remained within standard error.

Conclusions> Antisocial behaviour in prisons, including violence, are reduced by vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids with similar implications for those eating poor diets in the community.

Omega-3 reduced anti-social behavior in prisoners – RCT Aug 2020

The Effect of Dietary Supplementation on Aggressive Behaviour in Australian Adult Male Prisoners: A Feasibility and Pilot Study for a Randomised, Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial
Nutrients . 2020 Aug 27;12(9):2617. doi: 10.3390/nu12092617.
Colin H Cortie 1 2, Mitchell K Byrne 3, Carole Collier 4, Natalie Parletta 5, Donna Crawford 4, Pia C Winberg 6, David Webster 1, Karen Chapman 4, Gayle Thomas 4, Jean Dally 4, Marijka Batterham 7, Anne Marie Martin 8, Luke Grant 8, Barbara J Meyer 1 2

This study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a nutrition trial in adult male prisoners. Adult male prisoners were recruited for a 16-week randomised control trial comparing the effect of ingestion of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) and multivitamin supplements versus placebo on aggressive behaviour. The baseline and post-intervention assessments from the participant blood samples were the erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA levels as well as measures of aggressive behaviour determined through institutional records of misconduct (IRM), the Inmate Behaviour Observation Scale (IBOS), and questionnaires. A total of 136 adult male prisoners consented to the study with a retention rate of 60%, and 93% of blood samples were successfully collected. The IRM and IBOS scores were collected for 100% of participants, whilst 82-97% of participants completed the questionnaires. From the baseline data, the Odds Ratio shows that prisoners are 4.3 times more likely to have an IBOS >2 if they are below the 6% cut off on the omega-3 index. Both groups improved across all outcome measures and, at the current sample size, no significant differences were seen between them. A power calculation suggests a total sample size of 600 participants is required to detect the effects of this dietary supplementation, and that this supplementation study is feasible in a Correctional Centre. Important criteria for the exclusion and consideration of logistics and compliance are presented.
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Created by admin. Last Modification: Friday February 5, 2021 16:56:07 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 7)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
14986 zaalberg2009.pdf admin 05 Feb, 2021 16:53 135.92 Kb 318
14985 Aggressive Behaviour.pdf admin 05 Feb, 2021 16:34 1.91 Mb 227
14984 antisocial behaviour.pdf admin 05 Feb, 2021 16:32 164.22 Kb 401
14983 Correctional facility RDA RCT.pdf PDF 2021 admin 05 Feb, 2021 16:30 405.61 Kb 303