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Puberty for girls much earlier if low vitamin D – perhaps for boys as well

Several items on this page show strong associations between early age of menarche and low levels of vitamin D
Also: Vitamin D levels have been dropping in the past 40 years AND the ages of menarche/puberty have also been dropping around the world

Vitamin D deficiency and age at menarche: a prospective study - Oct 2011

Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):1020-5. Epub 2011 Aug 10.
Villamor E, Marin C, Mora-Plazas M, Baylin A.
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. villamor at umich.edu

BACKGROUND: Early menarche is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease and cancer. Latitude, which influences sun exposure, is inversely related to age at menarche.
This association might be related to vitamin D, but to our knowledge it has not been investigated in prospective epidemiologic studies.

OBJECTIVE: We studied the association between vitamin D status and the occurrence of menarche in a prospective study in girls from Bogota, Colombia.

DESIGN: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in a random sample of 242 girls (mean ± SD age: 8.8 ± 1.6 y) and followed them for a median of 30 mo. Girls were asked periodically about the occurrence and date of menarche. Baseline 25(OH)D concentrations were categorized as <50 nmol/L (deficient), ?50 and <75 nmol/L, or ?75 nmol/L (sufficient). The incidence of menarche was compared between groups by using time-to-event analyses.

RESULTS: A total of 57% of girls in the vitamin D-deficient group reached menarche during follow-up compared with 23% of girls in the vitamin D-sufficient group (P-trend = 0.0004). The estimated mean (±SE) ages at menarche in the same groups were 11.8 ± 0.2 y and 12.6 ± 0.2 y, respectively (P = 0.0009). After adjustment for baseline age and BMI-for-age z score in a Cox proportional hazards model, the probability of menarche was twice as high in vitamin D-deficient girls than in girls who were vitamin D-sufficient (HR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.07; P = 0.04). Similar results were obtained in girls aged ?9 y at baseline (HR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14, 5.00; P = 0.02).

CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with earlier menarche.

PMID: 21831989

Approximately 1 year earlier if low level of vitamin D
Figure from PDF

Menarche vs life expectancy

PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

3 minute Video by the author

  • Elsewhere: In 1901, menarche in US and Canada 13.9 or 14 years.
  • By the 1970's it had declined to 12.5 years
  • Now, if vitamin D deficient, it is, on average < 12 years

Early puberty increasing in obese and dark skin children (probably lower vitamin D) – Nov 2013

There was no mention of vitamin D in the article
Black girls had the earliest average onset at 8.8 years old, followed by Latino girls (9.3 years) and white and Asian girls (9.7 years).
The onset for white girls was earlier by four months than in a large study 15 years prior.
The new study found that 14 percent of instances of early puberty appeared linked to obesity,

Onset of Breast Development in a Longitudinal Cohort
Pediatrics (doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-3773) Nov 4, 2013

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is growing evidence of pubertal maturation occurring at earlier ages, with many studies based on cross-sectional observations. This study examined age at onset of breast development (thelarche), and the impact of BMI and race/ethnicity, in the 3 puberty study sites of the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program, a prospective cohort of >1200 girls.

METHODS: Girls, 6 to 8 years at enrollment, were followed longitudinally at regular intervals from 2004 to 2011 in 3 geographic areas: the San Francisco Bay Area, Greater Cincinnati, and New York City. Sexual maturity assessment using Tanner staging was conducted by using standardized observation and palpation methods by trained and certified staff. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to describe age at onset of breast maturation by covariates.

RESULTS: The age at onset of breast stage 2 varied by race/ethnicity, BMI at baseline, and site. Median age at onset of breast stage 2 was 8.8, 9.3, 9.7, and 9.7 years for African American, Hispanic, white non-Hispanic, and Asian participants, respectively. Girls with greater BMI reached breast stage 2 at younger ages. Age-specific and standardized prevalence of breast maturation was contrasted to observations in 2 large cross-sectional studies conducted 10 to 20 years earlier (Pediatric Research in Office Settings and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III) and found to have occurred earlier among white, non-Hispanic, but not African American girls.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed the onset of thelarche at younger ages than previously documented, with important differences associated with race/ethnicity and BMI, confirming and extending patterns seen previously. These findings are consistent with temporal changes in BMI.

3X more likely to be vitamin D deficient if early puberty - June 2014

Associations between serum vitamin D levels and precocious puberty in girls,
Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jun;19(2):91-5. doi: 10.6065/apem.2014.19.2.91. Epub 2014 Jun 30.
Lee HS, Kim YJ, Shim YS, Jeong HR, Kwon E, Hwang JS.
Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University Hospital, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and autoimmune disease.
However, data on the vitamin D status and its association with precocious puberty in girls are limited.
We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and precocious puberty in girls.

METHODS: A total of 60 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 30 control girls were enrolled. Anthropometric measurement and serum level of 25OHD were estimated for all subjects.

RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the mean serum 25OHD concentration between the precocious puberty group and the control group (17.1±4.5 ng/mL vs. 21.2±5.0 ng/mL, P<0.05). Forty-two of the 60 girls with CPP (70%) had vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum 25OHD<20 ng/mL) and 18 (30%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Of the 30 girls in the control group, vitamin D deficiency was seen in 13 subjects (43.3%), 15 subjects (50%) had vitamin D insufficiency, and 2 subjects (6.7%) had sufficient serum vitamin D (defined as serum 25OHD>30 ng/mL). Vitamin D deficient girls had a significantly higher odds ratio (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.22-7.57, P=0.021).

CONCLUSION: These results showed that vitamin D levels may be associated with precocious puberty.
Further studies are required to establish the potential effect of vitamin D status on puberty.

Summary by VitaminDWiki

precocious pubertyControl
Vitamin D17 ng21 ng
Vitamin D Deficiency < 20 ng 70%43%
Vitamin D Insufficiency 20-30 ng 30% 50%
Vitamin D Sufficiency ? 30 ng 0%6.7%

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

See also VitaminDWiki

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Short URL for this page = http://is.gd/vitdpuberty

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
4218 47-Precocious puberty vit D defic Korea Lee.pdf PDF 2014 admin 01 Aug, 2014 14:59 336.89 Kb 367
2032 Menarche and life expectancy.png admin 30 Jan, 2013 01:49 48.63 Kb 7489
1658 Menarche vs vitamin D.jpg admin 21 Oct, 2012 02:14 23.08 Kb 6539
1657 Menarche and Vitamin D.pdf PDF admin 21 Oct, 2012 02:13 118.46 Kb 738
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