Health conditions detected in a comprehensive periodic health evaluation of 558 professional football players.
Br J Sports Med. 2016 Mar 24. pii: bjsports-2015-095829. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095829.
Bakken A1, Targett S2, Bere T3, Adamuz MC2, Tol JL4, Whiteley R2, Wilson MG5, Witvrouw E2, Khan KM2, Bahr R1.
Strongly suspect that professional soccer is payes indoors in Qatar (no vitamin D)
- Overview Middle East and vitamin D
- 84 percent had less than 30 ng of vitamin D (10,000 patients in Saudi Arabia) Sept 2014
- Athletic performance and recovery – importance of vitamin D and vitamin K – 2015
- Doctors Say Top Athletes Take Vitamin D And So Should You - CBS News Feb 2016
- Elite Athletes Try a New Training Tactic: More Vitamin D - WSJ Jan 2016
- NCAA athletes – one third had low levels of vitamin D, 19X more likely if black race – March 2015
- Professional soccer players with more vitamin D had better body parameters – 2014
- Pregnant Women might find Global Warming Dangerous (lower vitamin D) – Nov 2017
- Overview Sports and vitamin D has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:
- Faster reaction time
- Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
- Less sore/tired after a workout
- Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
- Bones which do break heal much more quickly
- Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
- Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
- Professional indoor athletes are starting to supplement with vitamin D or use vitamin D beds
- Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
- The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
- Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
- Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
- Sports and Vitamin D category
1Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar Department of Sports Medicine, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
2Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
3Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
4Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar The Sports Physician Group, Department of Sports Medicine, St Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Amsterdam Center of Evidence Based Sports Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
5Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar Research Institute of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK Research Institute of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Canberra, Australia.
Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated.
To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football players and evaluate their consequences for participation clearance.
A total of 558 professional football players in Qatar completed a PHE prior to the 2013 or 2014 seasons: history, general medical (including blood test), cardiovascular (12-lead ECG and echocardiography) and a musculoskeletal examination, including a specific test battery targeting lower extremity strength and flexibility. On the basis of the PHE, players were either cleared or not cleared for participation.
In 533 players (95.5%), at least one health condition was detected requiring treatment or follow-up.
Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (≤30 ng/mL) was the most common medical condition (n=499, 89.4%), followed by hepatitis B non-immunity or infection (n=164, 29.4%). Cardiac screening identified 48 players (8.6%) with one or more abnormal findings (ECG (n=19, 3.4%) and echocardiography (n=14, 2.5%)). Musculoskeletal conditions were observed in 180 players (32.3%); injuries to or strength deficits of the hip/groin and thigh accounted for the largest proportion. Medical clearance was temporarily not given in 69 players (12.4%), while further examinations were being conducted. One player was disqualified from competitive football.
PHE revealed a high prevalence of health conditions requiring treatment or follow-up in professional footballers; however, only 12.4% of conditions impacted on final clearance for participation.
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