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Preterm infants, kidney, rickets and vitamin D intake: is it time for rewriting the history – Aug 2014

Their title, not mine


Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics – Aug 2014
Raffaella Mormile, Vassilios Fanos, Giorgio Vittori
1 Division of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Moscati Hospital, Via A. Gramsci, 3, 81031, Aversa, Italy, raffaellamormile at alice.it.

Free excerpt: Publisher wants $45 for PDF

Great advances in neonatal intensive care have improved survival rates of infants who once had little chance for survival such as preterm babies [1, 2]. Organ system immaturity in preterm infants is connected with long term complications that have both clinical and public health importance [1]. Severe hypoxia occurs in most preterm infants leading to cell death which may be necrotic or apoptotic [1]. Significant elevation of apoptotic activity has been shown to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of several diseases associated with prematurity such as renal dysfunction [1]. In the kidneys of preterm infants, apoptosis has been described in tubular epithelial cells [1]. Renal tubular cell apoptosis has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure [3]. The consequences of premature birth or low birth weight on nephrogenesis, final nephron number and long-term kidney function are still not well defined [2].The kidney of low birth weight preterm infan . . .

References

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  2. Carnody JB, Chariton JR (2013) Short-term gestation, long-term risk: prematurity and chronic kidney disease. Pediatrics 131:1168–1179 CrossRef
  3. Kindt N, Menzebach A, Van de Wouwer M, Betz I et al (2008) Protective role of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein, survivin, in toxin-induced acute renal failure. FASEB J 22(2):510–521 CrossRef
  4. Faa G, Gerosa C, Fanni D, Nemolato S et al (2010) Marked inter-individual variability in renal maturation of preterm infants: lessons from autopsy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 3:129–133 CrossRef
  5. Bolat F, Comert S, Bolat G, Kucuk O et al (2013) Acute kidney injury in a single neonatal intensive care unit in Turkey. World J Pediatr 9:323–329 CrossRef
  6. Stojanović V, Barišić N, Milanović B, Doronjski A (2014) Acute kidney injury in preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Nephrol
  7. Askenazi DJ, Griffin R, McGwin G, Carlo W, Ambalavanan N (2009) Acute kidney injury is independently associated with mortality in very low birthweight infants. A matched case–control analysis. Pediatr Nephrol 24:991–997 CrossRef
  8. Brenner BM (1994) The etiology of adult hypertension and progressive renal injury: an hypothesis. Bull Mem Acad R Med Belg 149(1–2):121–125 (discussion 125–127)
  9. Chen J, Chen JK, Conway EM, Harris RC (2013) Survivin mediates renal proximal tubule recovery from AKI. J Am Soc Nephrol 24:2023–2033 CrossRef
  10. Weimbs T, Talbot JJ (2013) STAT3 signaling in polycystic kidney disease. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech. doi:10.1016/j.ddmec.2013.03.001
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  13. Yuzeng Q, Weiyang H, Xin G, Qingson Z et al (2014) Effects of transplantation with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells modified with survivin on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in mice. Yonsei Med J 55(4):1130–1137 CrossRef
  14. Abrams SA, The Committee on Nutrition (2013) Calcium and vitamin D requirements of enterally fed preterm infants. Pediatrics 131:1676–1683 CrossRef
  15. Monangi N, Slaughter JL, Dawodu A, Smith C, Akinbi HT (2014) Vitamin D status of early preterm infants and the effects of vitamin D intake during hospital stay. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal 99:F166–F168 CrossRef
  16. Natarajan CK, Sankar MJ, Agarwal R, Pratap OT et al (2014) Trial of daily vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants. Pediatrics 133:e628–e634 CrossRef
  17. Li F, Ling X, Huang H, Brattain L et al (2005) Differential regulation of survivin expression and apoptosis by vitamin D3 compounds in two isogenic MCF-7 breast cancer cell sublines. Oncogene 24(8):1385 CrossRef
  18. Groner B, Weiss A (2014) Targeting survivin in cancer: novel drug development approaches. BioDrugs 28(1):27–39 CrossRef
  19. Koike H, Morikawa Y, Sekine Y, Matsui H et al (2011) Survivin is associated with cell proliferation and has a role in 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induced cell growth inhibition in prostate cancer. J Urol 185(4):1497–1503 CrossRef
  20. González-Pardo V, Verstuyf A, Boland R, Russo de Boland A (2013) Vitamin D analogue TX 527 down-regulates the NF-κB pathway and controls the proliferation of endothelial cells transformed by Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus. Br J Pharmacol 169(7):1635–1645. doi:10.1111/bph.12219 CrossRef
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VitaminDWiki believes that the history does not have to be re-written.

However, the current recommendations need to be increased to face the reality that virtually EVERYONE now has less vitamin D.
Reasons for Vitamin D deficiency 34 reasons as of 2014
For more information, see wiki page http://www.vitamindwiki.com/tiki-index.php?page_id=1586
Less Sun Less D Less Health

See also VitaminDWiki

IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level CofactorsCalcium $*/month
200 Better bones for mom
with 600 mg of Calcium
6 ng/ml increase Not needed No effect $0.10
400 Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
20-30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $0.20
2000 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $1
4000 2X fewer pregnancy complications
2X fewer pre-term births
49 ng/ml Should have
cofactors
< 750 mg $3
6000 Probable: larger benefits for above items
Just enough D for breastfed infant
More maternal and infant weight
Should have
cofactors
< 750 mg $4


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