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Preemie immunity (Treg) vastly improved by 800 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT July 2019

Vitamin D supplementation and T Cell Regulation In Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019 Jul 22. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002448.
Aly H1, Mohsen L2, Bhattacharjee I1, Malash A2, Atyia A2, Elanwary S2, Hawary RE3.
1 Department of Neonatology, Cleveland Clinic Children's, Cleveland, Ohio.
2 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
3 Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different doses of vitamin D on the expression of T regulatory cells (Treg) in premature infants. A double blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted on preterm infants born with gestational age (GA) between 28 and 33weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 400 or 800 IU/day of vitamin D3 when they achieved 100 ml/kg of enteral feeds. Percent increase in Treg cell counts were measured by flow cytometry at enrollment, and after one and four weeks of oral vitamin D supplementation at the allotted doses in both groups. Short-term morbidity and mortality outcomes were also assessed. A total of 40 infants were enrolled, 20 in each group. The change in Treg count (%) was significantly less in the low-dose vitamin D3 supplementation group after one week (1.9 ± 5.5 vs 60 ± 5.6, p = 0.0005) and after four weeks (1.8 ± 5.7 vs 73.7 ± 5.6, p = 0.0028). The two groups did not differ in anthropometric measurements, duration of oxygen and respiratory support, and mortality. Length of hospital stay was longer in the low-dose group (24.9 ± 5.14 vs 22 ± 3.49, p = 0.04). Oral vitamin D supplementation has a dose and time dependent effect on percentage of Treg in infants born prematurely. The 800 IU dose of vitamin D3 did not have apparent short-term side effects. Larger studies are needed to explore the effect of vitamin D3 dosing on length of hospital stay.

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