Is first trimester vitamin D status in nulliparous women associated with pregnancy related hypertensive disorders?
Midwifery. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2015.12.007 Available online 24 December 2015
Britte van Weert, BSc (Midwife)a, b, 1, , Denice van den Berg, BSc (Midwife)a, b, 1, , E. Jessica Hrudey, MSc (Junior Researcher, Data Manager)a, , , Adriëtte J.J.M. Oostvogels, MSc (PhD Candidate)a, , Esteriek de Miranda, PhD (Senior Researcher)c, , Tanja G.M. Vrijkotte, PhD (Assistant Professor, Epidemiologist)a,
The raw data found 2.08 X increased pre-eclampsia with low vitamin D.
From the PDF:
“When the inclusion of covariates was investigated separately, pBMI was observed to be the strongest confounder, followed by ethnicity and then years of education.”
They “adjusted” for BMI – which is strongly related to low vitamin D
They “adjusted” for Ethnicity – which is strongly related to low vitamin D
See also VitaminDWiki
Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D
Ethnicity and low vitamin D levels during pregnancy – Jan 2016
Preeclampsia 415 items as of Oct 2015
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Pregnancy and Hypertension (preeclampsia)
- Preeclampsia (hypertension while pregnant) varies with season (O.R. 0.57) – June 2021
- Preeclampsia (low vitamin D) doubles the risk of later cardiovascular problems – Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 11X more likely if poor Vitamin D Binding Protein (South Africa) - Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019
- Preeclampsia reduced 1.7 X by aspirin (but reduced 7 X by Vitamin D) – Feb 2018
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018
- Preeclampsia of offspring cut in half if mother who smoked had vitamin D fortified margarine – Dec 2017
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Child 49 percent higher risk of being overweight if hypertension during pregnancy – Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017
- Preeclampsia is not reduced by vitamin D (if you ignore vitamin D level, dose size, frequency and duration) – July 2017
- Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017
- No Hypertension during pregnancy if more than 60 ng of vitamin D – RCT
- Preeclampsia changes to Vitamin D Binding Protein reduces Vitamin D in placenta – Dec 2016
- Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Preeclampsia 4X less likely if vitamin D levels increased by 8 ng during pregnancy – March 2016
- Pre-eclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015
- Preeclampsia and eclampsia associated with lower vitamin D, etc. – Sept 2015
- Preeclampsia increased risk of Congenital Heart Defects by 60 percent (vitamin D not mentioned) Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly) and Calcium – Oct 2015
- Burkas reduce vitamin D levels, which causes pregnancy problems – Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia – hypothesis as to why vitamin D helps – June 2015
- Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014
- Hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) more frequent in winter (low vitamin D) – Jan 2015
- Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if mother had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- During pregnancy even 400 IU helps metabolic status – RCT July 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012
- Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012
- Low vitamin D results in severe preeclampsia and low birth weight – Mar 2011
- Women with low vitamin D 4X more likely to have preeclampsia in pregnancy – Nov 2010
- Seasonal variation in pregnancy hypertension is correlated with sunlight intensity - June 2010
Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary
- FACT: People who are obese have less vitamin D in their blood
- FACT: Obese need a higher dose of vitamin D to get to the same level of vit D
- FACT: When obese people lose weight the vitamin D level in their blood increases
- FACT: Adding Calcium, perhaps in the form of fortified milk, often reduces weight
- FACT: 153 trials for vitamin D intervention of obesity as of Sept 2020
- FACT: Less weight gain by senior women with > 30 ng of vitamin D
- FACT: Dieters lost additional 5 lbs if vitamin D supplementation got them above 32 ng - RCT
- FACT: Obese lost 3X more weight by adding $10 of Vitamin D
- FACT: Those with darker skins were more likely to be obese Sept 2014
- OBSERVATION: Many mammals had evolved to add fat and vitamin D in the autumn
- and lose both in the Spring - unfortunately humans have forgotten to lose the fat in the Spring
- SUGGESTION: Probably need more than 4,000 IU to lose weight if very low on vitamin D due to
risk factors such as overweight, age, dark skin, live far from equator,shut-in, etc.
- Obesity category has
•large cohort study on vitamin D status and blood pressure related parameters during pregnancy.
•low vitamin D not related to risk of pregnancy related hypertensive disorders after correction.
•blood pressure risk factors for pregnancy related hypertensive disorders not related to vitamin D.
this study aimed to explore if maternal vitamin D status in early pregnancy was associated with pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Relationships between vitamin D status and blood pressure at the start of pregnancy as well as the occurrence of a mid-pregnancy drop in blood pressure were also explored. This secondary analysis was completed to investigate a possible mechanism for the association between vitamin D status and pregnancy related hypertensive disorders.
Design and setting
data were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a prospective community-based cohort study based in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
a total of 2074 nulliparous women without pre-existing hypertension and with a known vitamin D status before 17 weeks gestation were included in the study. Vitamin D status was categorized into four groups: “normal” (≥50 nmol/L), “insufficient” (30–49.9 nmol/L) “deficient” (20–29.9 nmol/L) or “severely deficient” (<20 nmol/L).
logistic regression analysis was used to investigate if vitamin D status was related to the odds of experiencing pre-eclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Models were corrected for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking and socioeconomic status. χ2 and ANOVA tests were used to investigate relationships between vitamin D status and the blood pressure parameters.
when compared to women with a normal vitamin D status, women who were severely deficient had an increased risk for pre-eclampsia (OR 2.08; 95% CI, 1.05–4.13), but the association was rendered non-significant after correction (OR 1.88; 95% CI 0.79–4.48). There were no associations between vitamin D status and pregnancy-induced hypertension, starting blood pressure or the occurrence of a mid-pregnancy drop in blood pressure.
no strong evidence was found for an association between first trimester vitamin D status and pregnancy related hypertensive disorders in nulliparous women.
Implications for practice
at this time, vitamin D supplementation is not warranted for the specific purpose of preventing pregnancy related hypertensive disorders.Pre-eclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015
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