Nutrients 2014, 6(6), 2196-2205; doi:10.3390/nu6062196 (doi registration under processing)
Anna J. Jovanovich 1, Adit A. Ginde 2, John Holmen 3, Kristen Jablonski 1, Rebecca L. Allyn 4, Jessica Kendrick 1,4 and Michel Chonchol 1, Michel.Chonchol at ucdenver.edu
1 Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80045 USA
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80045 USA
3 Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UT 84157, USA
4 Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO 80204, USA
Previous research has reported reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels is associated with acute infectious illness. The relationship between vitamin D status, measured prior to acute infectious illness, with risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and sepsis has not been examined. Community-living individuals hospitalized with CAP or sepsis were age-, sex-, race-, and season-matched with controls. ICD-9 codes identified CAP and sepsis; chest radiograph confirmed CAP.
Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured up to 15 months prior to hospitalization.
Regression models adjusted for diabetes, renal disease, and peripheral vascular disease evaluated the association of 25(OH)D levels with CAP or sepsis risk. A total of 132 CAP patients and controls were 60 ± 17 years, 71% female, and 86% Caucasian.
The 25(OH)D levels <37 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.57, 95% CI 1.08–6.08) were strongly associated with increased odds of CAP hospitalization.
A total of 422 sepsis patients and controls were 65 ± 14 years, 59% female, and 91% Caucasian. The 25(OH)D levels <37 nmol/L (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11–2.77) were associated with increased odds of sepsis hospitalization. Vitamin D status was inversely associated with risk of CAP and sepsis hospitalization in a community-living adult population. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce risk of infections, including CAP and sepsis.
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- Pneumonia patients 3 X more likely to die if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Any supplementation with vitamin D reduced chance of pneumonia by 50 percent – Oct 2013
- Pneumonia 2.6X more likely if low vitamin D – April 2013 Finland, similar age group
- Pneumonia elderly death 12X more likely when vitamin D less than 12 ng – 2011
- Pneumonia acquired in hospital – 3X more likely to die if low vitamin D – June 2015
- Less Pneumonia in those having more activated vitamin D (kidneys working)– April 2014
- Recurrence of child pneumonia delayed by 100000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Oct 2010
- ICU patients with pneumonia stay 7 days longer if low vitamin D - Dec 2011
- Community-acquired pneumonia WikiPedia
CAP = not acquired in hospital
CAP occurs throughout the world and is a leading cause of illness and death.
Causes of CAP include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
WHO estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia
elderly individuals are particularly at risk for CAP and associated mortality