Response to vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter is related to BMI,
and supplementation can mitigate Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation.
J Nutr. 2011 Apr 1;141(4):692-7.
Zwart SR, Mehta SK, Ploutz-Snyder R, Bourbeau Y, Locke JP, Pierson DL, Smith SM.
Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX 77058, USA.
Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic vitamin D supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function was evaluated in people in Antarctica with no UV light exposure for 6 mo.
Participants were given a
- 2000-IU (50 ?g) daily (n = 15) or
- 10,000-IU (250 ?g) weekly (n = 14) vitamin D supplement
for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined.
After 6 mo, the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (mean ± SD) increased from 56 ± 17 to 79 ± 16 nmol/L and from 52 ± 10 to 69 ± 9 nmol/L in the 2000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups, respectively (main effect over time, P < 0.001).
Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19–43 g/m2) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D after 6-mo supplementation (P < 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisol and higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P < 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.
Summary: 2000 IU daily raised vitamin D levels from 22 to 32 ng, unless high BMI
- 50000 IU monthly helped those lacking sun – Jan 2012 another Antarctic Research paper
- NASA thinks spacestation personnel only need 800 IU of vitamin D – Sept 2012
- All items in category How Much Vitamin D
- 40 ng Vitamin D perhaps optimal for reduced mortality – Meta-analysis Jan 2012 26 ng is not enough
- 1600 IU daily Vitamin D raised adult blood levels above 20 ng – RCT Nov 2011 agrees with this paper
- 2000 IU of vitamin D is a step in the right direction for Canada– Nov 2010
- Four reasons why vitamin D levels should be higher the 30 ng – Aug 2011
- Cadavers with good skeletons had 30 ng of vitamin D – Feb 2010
- Intervention - add vitamin D and see what happens
- Half of the seniors needed more than 50,000 IU vitamin D3 monthly – April 2011
- Overview Seniors lack Vitamin D
- Vitamin D Dosing and loading- Pizzorno ND Feb 2010.pdf
- 65+ years old need 5,000 IU
- Recommend 2500-4000 IU per day to reduce all-cause mortality by 18%– Grant Netherlands April 2010
- How you might double the benefit of your vitamin D
Such as the form of the supplement, the fats you take with it, essential co-factors, etc
- All items in category Far From Equator
- Overview Obesity and Vitamin D
- Overview How Much vitamin D need >2,000 IU if in a high risk group: has the following graph
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