Null Association Between Vitamin D and PSA Levels Among Black Men in a Vitamin D Supplementation Trial
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention June 2014
Paulette D. Chandler1,*, Edward L. Giovannucci2, Jamil B. Scott3, Gary G. Bennett4, Kimmie Ng5, Andrew T. Chan6, Bruce W. Hollis7, Karen M. Emmons8, Charles S. Fuchs9, and Bettina F. Drake10
1Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital
2Departments of Epidemiology & Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health
3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University
4Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University
5Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
6Department of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
7Division of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina
8Center for Community-Based Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
9Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School
10Department of Surgery, Division of Public Health Sciences, Washington Univeristy
↵* Corresponding Author:
Paulette D. Chandler, Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Ave, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA, 02115, United States pchandler at partners.org
Background: Black men exhibit a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as well as higher incidence of prostate cancer and higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than Whites. There are few data about the effect of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on prostate specific antigen (PSA) in healthy Black men.
Methods: During 3 winters from 2007-2010, 105 Black men (median age, 48.9 years) of Boston, MA were randomized into a 4-arm, double-blind trial for 3 months of placebo, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU of vitamin D3. At baseline and 3 months, free and total PSA were measured.
Results: With vitamin D supplementation, no significant differences in free and total PSA were observed; free PSA: -0.0004 ng/mL (p=0.94) and total PSA: -0.004 ng/mL (p=0.92) for each additional 1000 IU/d of vitamin D3.
Conclusion: Within an unselected population of healthy Black men without a cancer diagnosis, we found no effect of vitamin D supplementation on free or total PSA. Impact: These findings support prior findings of no change in PSA with vitamin D supplementation and emphasize the need for new methods to assess the influence of vitamin D supplementation on prostate cancer prevention.
Received May 9, 2014. Revision received June 5, 2014. Accepted June 19, 2014.
Giving 4,000 IU of vitamin D to 50 year old Black men in the winter in Northern US will NOT restore their vitamin D levels
They are in not one, but four categories of being at high risk for vitamin D deficiency
- Far from equator
- Dark Skin
The 360,000 IU given (4,000 x 90 days) would have been a nice loading dose to start with, followed by the dose rate used in the study
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