Int J Epidemiol. 2016 Sep 4. pii: dyw207. [Epub ahead of print]
- Ovarian Cancer – 7 percent more likely to survive longer for every 4 ng higher vitamin D – July 2015
- Ovarian Cancer 5.8 X more likely if both low vitamin D and Fok1 gene change – May 2013
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Ovarian Cancer: What We Think We Know May Harm Us Green Medical Info June 2014
False-positive diagnosis = 3,285, but actual Ovarian cancer = only 212 (False positive error rate = about 15X)
And, 5X more women without ovarian cancer ended up having surgery than those with actual ovarian cancer, (JAMA 2011)
Ong JS, Cuellar-Partida G, Lu Y, Ovarian Cancer Study A, Fasching PA, Hein A, Burghaus S, Beckmann MW, Lambrechts D, Van Nieuwenhuysen E, Vergote I, Vanderstichele A, Anne Doherty J, Anne Rossing M, Chang-Claude J, Eilber U, Rudolph A, Wang-Gohrke S, Goodman MT, Bogdanova N, Dörk T, Dürst M, Hillemanns P, Runnebaum IB, Antonenkova N, Butzow R, Leminen A, Nevanlinna H, Pelttari LM, Edwards RP, Kelley JL, Modugno F, Moysich KB, Ness RB, Cannioto R, Høgdall E, Høgdall CK, Jensen A, Giles GG, Bruinsma F, Kjaer SK, Hildebrandt MA, Liang D, Lu KH, Wu X, Bisogna M, Dao F, Levine DA, Cramer DW, Terry KL, Tworoger SS, Stampfer M, Missmer S, Bjorge L, Salvesen HB, Kopperud RK, Bischof K, Aben KK, Kiemeney LA, Massuger LF, Brooks-Wilson A, Olson SH, McGuire V, Rothstein JH, Sieh W, Whittemore AS, Cook LS, Le ND, Blake Gilks C, Gronwald J, Jakubowska A, Lubinski J, Kluz T, Song H, Tyrer JP, Wentzensen N, Brinton L, Trabert B, Lissowska J, McLaughlin JR, Narod SA, Phelan C, Anton-Culver H, Ziogas A, Eccles D, Campbell I, Gayther SA, Gentry-Maharaj A, Menon U, Ramus SJ, Wu AH, Dansonka-Mieszkowska A, Kupryjanczyk J, Timorek A, Szafron L, Cunningham JM, Fridley BL, Winham SJ, Bandera EV, Poole EM, Morgan TK, Risch HA, Goode EL, Schildkraut JM, Pearce CL, Berchuck A, Pharoah PD, Chenevix-Trench G, Gharahkhani P, Neale RE, Webb PM, MacGregor S.
In vitro and observational epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D may play a role in cancer prevention. However, the relationship between vitamin D and ovarian cancer is uncertain, with observational studies generating conflicting findings. A potential limitation of observational studies is inadequate control of confounding. To overcome this problem, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and risk of ovarian cancer.
We employed SNPs with well-established associations with 25(OH)D concentration as instrumental variables for MR: rs7944926 (DHCR7), rs12794714 (CYP2R1) and rs2282679 (GC). We included 31 719 women of European ancestry (10 065 cases, 21 654 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, who were genotyped using customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays. A two-sample (summary data) MR approach was used and analyses were performed separately for all ovarian cancer (10 065 cases) and for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (4121 cases).
The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer risk (10 065 cases) estimated by combining the individual SNP associations using inverse variance weighting was 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.51) per 20 nmol/L decrease in 25(OH)D concentration. The estimated odds ratio for high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (4121 cases) was 1.54 (1.19, 2.01).
Genetically lowered 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were associated with higher ovarian cancer susceptibility in Europeans. These findings suggest that increasing plasma vitamin D levels may reduce risk of ovarian cancer.
PMID: 27594614 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyw207
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