Microbial Pathogenesis, Volume 131, June 2019, Pages 158-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.03.041
- Gut microbiome massively changed by weekly vitamin D – July 2015
- Vitamin D, immunity and microbiome – Dec 2014
- Tuberculosis still associated with low vitamin D – 12th meta-analysis June 2021
- Tuberculosis 3X more likely if less than 12 ng of Vitamin D - meta-analysis Sept 2019
- Tuberculosis increased risk if poor Vitamin D receptor varies by race – meta-analysis Feb 2019
- Tuberculosis (multi-drug resistant) was 13.4 X more likely to be quickly cleared with Vitamin D - Meta-analysis Feb 2019
- Catching Tuberculosis from family member 2 X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Tuberculosis in children 1.7 X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Aug 2018
- Low vitamin D is a risk factor for tuberculosis – meta-analysis Dec 2016
- Tuberculosis 1.3 times more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis Oct 2016
- Tuberculosis 4.5X more likely if vitamin D less than 10 nanogram – meta-analysis May 2015
- Tuberculosis, genes and vitamin D – Meta-Analysis Dec 2013
- TB associated with low vitamin D in a review and meta-analysis – 2008
- TB and vitamin D updated review and meta-analysis – plays a role Jan 2010
Overview Tuberculosis and Vitamin D includes:
There are many indications that vitamin D both PREVENTS and TREATS TB
- As with many other diseases, we expect that there will be at least a 4X range of vitamin D due to:
- 4X range in the response in the vitamin D blood level for the same IU dose - for healthy, non-obese, people
- Also expect that co-factors and Vitamin D Receptor activators will prove to be very important
- UV appears to be as powerful or perhaps more powerful than vitamin D in TREATING TB
Note: Might be possible to get vitamin D directly to the lung microbiome if it were inhaled.
No mention of that possibility in this study
- Granuloma formation in tuberculosis involves multiple cell interactions which are affected by commensals in the lung.
- It is possible that lung microbiota changes could affect tuberculous granuloma dynamics.
- VD plays a key role in the immune response to Mtb, granuloma formation, and intestinal and lung microbiome modulation.
- These three variables interact with each other in TB, determining the outcome of infection and progression of disease.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has the extraordinary ability to persist for decades within granulomas in the human host. These histopathological structures involved in both protection and pathogenesis, are subject to various influences from the host systemically and through micro-niche environments. Despite the fact that vitamin D (VD) has a key role in macrophage activation and mycobacterial clearance in the early stages of Mtb infection, the overall role of VD in granuloma maintenance or functionality has been scarcely studied. VD deficiency has long time been known to influence on gut microbiota composition, and recent studies have shown that it can also impact on respiratory microbiome. The human microbiota plays an important role in pathogen colonization resistance, and it has been proposed to play a potential role in TB pathogenesis.
In this article, we have reviewed current knowledge on the interaction between VD, the lung microbiome and TB, and propose mechanisms by which the tuberculous granuloma's outcome could be modulated by these two factors. The determinants of the final fate of lung granulomas are still unclear, and deciphering the underlying drivers of Mtb infection outcome within those structures is of critical importance.
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