Leisure Time Physical Activity of Moderate to Vigorous Intensity and Mortality: A Large Pooled Cohort Analysis
Steven C. Moore1*, Alpa V. Patel2, Charles E. Matthews1, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez1, Yikyung Park1, Hormuzd A. Katki1, Martha S. Linet1, Elisabete Weiderpass3,4,5,6, Kala Visvanathan7, Kathy J. Helzlsouer7, Michael Thun2, Susan M. Gapstur2, Patricia Hartge1, I-Min Lee8
1 Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, 2 Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America, 3 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, 4 Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway, 5 Department of Community Medicine, Tromso, Norway, 6 Samfundet Folkhalsan, Helsinki, Finland, 7 Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, 8 Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
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40 years ago I discovered that about 3 hours of exercise each week felt best.
I have not missed a single week of exercise since then. (I added vitamin D in 2009)
I tried more than 3 hours per week - but found that the benefits decreased - as is indicated by this study
Summary: exercise: mainly biking and jogging (FYI: also strength training for 1.5 hour once every 3 weeks)
- Benefits were felt for up to 50 hours
- Essentially no time is lost by the exercise (for each hour of exercise I sleep an hour less)
- This study documents the long-term benefits
- Other studies have documented the mid-term benefits, such as less disease
Of course, this study might just as well have concluded that people who weigh less (and can exercise more) live longer
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Leisure time physical activity reduces the risk of premature mortality, but the years of life expectancy gained at different levels remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the years of life gained after age 40 associated with various levels of physical activity, both overall and according to body mass index (BMI) groups, in a large pooled analysis.
Methods and Findings
We examined the association of leisure time physical activity with mortality during follow-up in pooled data from six prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, comprising 654,827 individuals, 21–90 y of age. Physical activity was categorized by metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-h/wk). Life expectancies and years of life gained/lost were calculated using direct adjusted survival curves (for participants 40+ years of age), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived by bootstrap. The study includes a median 10 y of follow-up and 82,465 deaths. A physical activity level of 0.1–3.74 MET-h/wk, equivalent to brisk walking for up to 75 min/wk, was associated with a gain of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.6–2.0) y in life expectancy relative to no leisure time activity (0 MET-h/wk).
Higher levels of physical activity were associated with greater gains in life expectancy, with a gain of 4.5 (95% CI: 4.3–4.7) y at the highest level (22.5+ MET-h/wk, equivalent to brisk walking for 450+ min/wk).
Substantial gains were also observed in each BMI group. In joint analyses, being active (7.5+ MET-h/wk) and normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) was associated with a gain of 7.2 (95% CI: 6.5–7.9) y of life compared to being inactive (0 MET-h/wk) and obese (BMI 35.0+). A limitation was that physical activity and BMI were ascertained by self report.
More leisure time physical activity was associated with longer life expectancy across a range of activity levels and BMI groups.
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Leisure time physical activity level and hazard ratios for mortality and gains in life expectancy after age 40.The points shown represent the HR (A) or years of life gained (B) for each of the physical activity categories examined, and the vertical lines represent the 95% CIs for that physical activity category. The reference category for both (A) and (B) is 0.0 MET-h/wk of leisure time physical activity. The lines connecting the points help to illustrate the dose–response relationship between physical activity and risk of mortality; the shape of the association shown here is similar to that obtained using spline modeling (Figure S1). HRs were calculated in models stratified by study that used age as the underlying time scale. Multivariable models were adjusted for gender, alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–14.9, 15.0–29.9, 30.0+g/d), education (did not complete high school, completed high school, post-high-school training, some college, completed college), marital status (married, divorced, widowed, unmarried), history of heart disease, history of cancer, BMI (,18.5, 18.5–19.9, 20–22.4, 22.5–24.9, 25–27.4, 27.5–29.9, 30+kg/m 2), and smoking status (never, former, current). Years of life expectancy gained after age 40 were derived using direct adjusted survival curves 31,32 for participants who were 40+y of age at baseline (97.5% of participants).
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- Overview Sports and Vitamin D
- Dr. Grant on vitamin D and mortality in VitaminDWiki
- Should increase life expectancy by 2 years if double vitamin D levels – July 2011
And perhaps add 4 years if have much higher level of vitamin D
- Routine Exercise Found to Extend Life Almost Five Years VoA Nov 2012 reporting on this study