Efficacy and Tolerability of a High Loading Dose (25,000 IU Weekly) Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Obese Children with Vitamin D Insufficiency/Deficiency
Hormone Research in Paediatrics Vol. 82, No. 2, 2014
Radhakishun N.N.E. · van Vliet M. · Poland D.C.W. · Weijer O. · Beijnen J.H. · Brandjes D.P.M. · Diamant M. · von Rosenstiel I.A.
Background: The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation of 400 IU/day might be inadequate to treat obese children with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of a high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation of 25,000 IU weekly in multiethnic obese children, 8-18 years of age, with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. Methods: Fasting blood samples were drawn for the assessment of vitamin D. Vitamin D-insufficient/-deficient children (<50 nmol/l) were supplemented, using a high loading dose of 25,000 IU weekly, and measured again 9 weeks later. Vitamin D supplementation was considered effective and tolerable when an increase to vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/l) was reached in >75% without side effects nor reaching toxic levels.
Results: In total, 109 children (mean ± SD age 11.1 ± 3.0, 34.2% boys, 90.8% obese) received vitamin D supplementation. In 84.4% of the children, the vitamin D status improved from insufficiency/deficiency (<50 nmol/l) to sufficiency (≥50 nmol/l). The majority of children that did not reach vitamin D sufficiency reported non-compliance. No side effects were reported, and the highest level reached was far below the threshold for toxicity.
Conclusion: A high loading dose vitamin D3 supplementation is effective and well-tolerated in our cohort of multiethnic obese children with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A, Collett-Solberg PF, Kappy M: Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics 2008;122:398-417.
- Rockell JE, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Whiting SJ, Taylor RW, Williams SM, Parnell WR, Scragg R, Wilson N, Schaaf D, Fitzgerald ED, Wohlers MW: Season and ethnicity are determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in New Zealand children aged 5-14 years. J Nutr 2005;135:2602-2608.
- Alemzadeh R, Kichler J, Babar G, Calhoun M: Hypovitaminosis D in obese children and adolescents: relationship with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, ethnicity, and season. Metabolism 2008;57:183-191.
- The Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN): Evaluation of the dietary reference values for vitamin D. The Hague, HCN, 2012.
- Rajakumar K, Fernstrom JD, Holick MF, Janosky JE, Greenspan SL: Vitamin D status and response to vitamin D3 in obese vs. non-obese African-American children. Obesity 2008;16:90-95.
- Aquirre Castaneda R, Nader N, Weaver A, Singh R, Kumar S: Response to vitamin D3 supplementation in obese and non-obese Caucasian adolescents. Horm Res Paediatr 2012;78:226-231.
- Van Groningen L, Opdenoordt S, van Sorge A, Telting D, Giesen A, de Boer H: Cholecalciferol loading dose guideline for vitamin D-deficient adults. Eur J Endocrinol 2010;162:805-811.
- Vieth R: Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:842-856.
- Fredriks A, Van Buuren S, Wit J, Verloove-Vanhorick S: Body index measurements in 1996-1997 compared with 1980. Arch Dis Child 2000;82:107-112.
- Belenchia AM, Tosh AK, Hillman LS, Peterson CA: Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;97:774-781.
- Jorens PG, Demey HE, Schepens PJ, Coucke V, Verpooten GA, Couttenye MM, Van Hoof V: Unusual D-lactic acid acidosis from propylene glycol metabolism in overdose. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2004;42:163-169.
- Zosel A, Egelhoff E, Heard K: Severe lactic acidosis after an iatrogenic propylene glycol overdose. Pharmacotherapy 2010;30:219.
As with many other studies, this study would have better success if used any combientaion of the following
- Had extended the trial for more than 9 weeks
- Had used a loading dose
- Had used more than 25,000 IU
The lowest optimum level is 40 ng, Their 20 ng goal provides very few health benefits
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Infant/Child and Obesity
- Less obese child if supplemented with Vitamin D as an infant– meta-analysis Feb 2021
- Obese children had 2.2 X less response to a single dose of Vitamin D – Oct 2020
- Little weight loss in obese children from very small amount of vitamin D (1200 IU) – RCT April 2020
- Increased weight in children 8X more likely for each unit increase in adenovirus (if ignore Vitamin D) – Nov 2019
- Obesity 3X more likely in US children having low vitamin D – July 2019
- Overweight children are 3.4 X more likely to have low Vitamin D – March 2019
- Indoor pollution is a problem with obese black asthmatic children – May 2018
- Severe Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease treated by Omega-3 – RCT April 2018
- The Convergence of Two Epidemics: Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese School-aged Children – Jan 2018
- Fatty liver disease in children nicely treated by combination of Vitamin D and Omega-3 – RCT Dec 2016
- Omega-3 in infancy reduces Obesity following antibiotic (confirmed in rats, suspected in humans) – Feb 2016
- Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity: interactions, implications, and recommendations (5,000 IU) – Feb 2016
- Obese children – 71 percent had low vitamin D– Jan 2016
- Infant risk of obesity increased by 50 percent if low vitamin D during pregnancy – Sept 2015
- Obese children and youths need more vitamin D – Review Feb 2015
- Overweight children associated with low vitamin D during pregnancy – 2015, 2018
- Higher vitamin D at birth associated with less diabetes and obesity 35 years later – Jan 2014
- More Hypertension in obese children with low vitamin D, especially at night – Dec 2013
- Very poor follow-thu with vitamin D testing and supplementation of obese children – June 2013
- Obese children gain weight more quickly when have low vitamin D – Oct 2013
- Obese mothers with adequate vitamin D gave birth to low D and fat infants – Jan 2013
- Heavier kids more vitamin D deficient, especially if dark skinned – Pediatrics Dec 2012
- Obese children with celiac disease had lower levels of vitamin D – April 2012
- The more vitamin D the lower the infant BMI – March 2011
- Obama task force told that childhood Obesity linked to Vitamin D Deficiency – Aug 2010
Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary
- FACT: People who are obese have less vitamin D in their blood
- FACT: Obese need a higher dose of vitamin D to get to the same level of vit D
- FACT: When obese people lose weight the vitamin D level in their blood increases
- FACT: Adding Calcium, perhaps in the form of fortified milk, often reduces weight
- FACT: 153 trials for vitamin D intervention of obesity as of Sept 2020
- FACT: Less weight gain by senior women with > 30 ng of vitamin D
- FACT: Dieters lost additional 5 lbs if vitamin D supplementation got them above 32 ng - RCT
- FACT: Obese lost 3X more weight by adding $10 of Vitamin D
- FACT: Those with darker skins were more likely to be obese Sept 2014
- OBSERVATION: Many mammals had evolved to add fat and vitamin D in the autumn
- and lose both in the Spring - unfortunately humans have forgotten to lose the fat in the Spring
- SUGGESTION: Probably need more than 4,000 IU to lose weight if very low on vitamin D due to
risk factors such as overweight, age, dark skin, live far from equator,shut-in, etc.
- Obesity category has
367 itemsObese children probably need more than 25,000 IU of vitamin D weekly – July 2014 3373 visitors, last modified 20 Jul, 2017,