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Myopia, AMD, Dry Eye, and Diabetic Retinopathy are all associated with low Vitamin D - April 2023

Vitamin D and Ocular Diseases: A Systematic Review

Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084226
by Hei-Nga Chan 1,†,Xiu-Juan Zhang 1,†,Xiang-Tian Ling 1,Christine Huyen-Trang Bui 1,Yu-Meng Wang 1,Patrick Ip 2ORCID,Wai-Kit Chu 1,3ORCID,Li-Jia Chen 1,3,4ORCID,Clement C. Tham 1,3,4,5,6ORCID,Jason C. Yam 1,3,4,5,6,*ORCID and Chi-Pui Pang 1,3,*

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The contributory roles of vitamin D in ocular and visual health have long been discussed, with numerous studies pointing to the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency. In this paper, we provide a systematic review of recent findings on the association between vitamin D and different ocular diseases, including myopia, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), dry eye syndrome (DES), thyroid eye disease (TED), uveitis, retinoblastoma (RB), cataract, and others, from epidemiological, clinical and basic studies, and briefly discuss vitamin D metabolism in the eye. We searched two research databases for articles examining the association between vitamin D deficiency and different ocular diseases. One hundred and sixty-two studies were found.
There is evidence on the association between vitamin D and myopia, AMD, DR, and DES. Overall,

  • 17 out of 27 studies reported an association between vitamin D and AMD, while
  • 48 out of 54 studies reported that vitamin D was associated with DR, and
  • 25 out of 27 studies reported an association between vitamin D and DES.

However, the available evidence for the association with other ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, TED, and RB, remains limited.
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