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Middle Eastern women living in Sweden 23X higher risk to be anxious if low vitamin D – Feb 2020

Nutr Res, 75, 109-118 2020 Feb 8, DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2020.02.006
Lena E Granlund 1, Anna K Ramnemark 2, Christer Andersson 3, Marie C Lindkvist 4, Margareta Norberg 5, Eva M Fhärm 6

Active vitamin D is a neurosteroid that may modulate brain function. Associations between vitamin D deficiency and depression and anxiety have been demonstrated. We hypothesized that there was an association between anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and vitamin D status. To test this hypothesis, we examined the association between anxiety, depression, and HRQOL and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations in the Middle Eastern and African-born immigrant population. All immigrants aged 25-65 years, born in 9 African or Middle Eastern countries, and living in 3 districts in Umeå (n = 1306) were invited, with 195 English- or Swedish-speaking immigrants (104 men and 91 women) participated. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. HRQOL was measured using EuroQoL-5 Dimension 3 Level Questionnaire and EuroQoL Visual Analogue Scale. Serum 25(OH)D was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations were determined using logistic and linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, origin, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, chronic diseases, and obesity. In total, 71% had 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/L and 11% had 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol/L. Anxiety, depression, and HRQOL were not associated with 25(OH)D in the immigrant population.
Anxiety was common in female immigrants from the Middle East (32.7%); and after adjustment, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with higher risk of anxiety (25[OH]D ≤ 49 nmol/L vs 25[OH]D ≥ 50 nmol/L: odds ratio 23.2 [95% confidence interval 1.97 - 271.9] P = .012) in this subgroup only; however, reverse causality could not be excluded. In conclusion, the study showed no association between depression, anxiety, or HRQOL and vitamin D status in the immigrant population.

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