Arch Osteoporos. 2012 Dec;7(1-2):307-10.
Al Attia HM, Ibrahim MA.
Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Al Noor Hospital, Airport Road, PO Box 60420, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. haideralattia at hotmail.com
In the UAE, 255 women with different dressing styles (veiled and non-veiled) underwent assay for vitamin D(3). The vitamin level was suboptimal in all groups including those dressed in Western style. The contribution of hypovitaminosis D to osteoporosis was less impressive compared to that of age factor.
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency is attributed to several causes including clothing styles that hinder exposure to sunlight. This work represents our experience of such issue and its relevance to osteoporosis.
METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-five women either fully covered (96, group G1), covered but face and hands exposed (104, group G2) or dressed in Western style (55, group G3) all underwent immunoassay of 25(OH)D; 78 % of them were Middle Easterners and North Africans. The mean age was 44.8 ± 14.6 years.
RESULTS: In the entire cohort, hypovitaminosis D prevalence was found to be 90.5 % (mean of 25(OH)D, 19.3 ± 9.35 ng/ml). The prevalence was 90.5, 94 and 83 % (all p = not significant (NS)), with a mean value of 17.6 ± 5.45, 16 ± 5.23 and 18.6 ± 6.18 ng/ml in the three groups, respectively. Significant differences in the mean value were observed between G1 vs. G2 (p = 0.04) and G2 vs. G3 (p = 0.01). Fifty-one women in G1 had longer adherence to their dressing habit than 68 in G2, yet the mean level of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in the latter (p = 0.008). Osteoporosis was found in 45/202 (22 %): 24.5, 22.5 and 14.5 % in the three groups, respectively (all p = NS). Patients with osteoporosis were significantly older than others with normal dual X-ray absorptiometry outcome. Values of serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, mild to moderate secondary hyperparathyroidism and low 25(OH)D were comparable in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The pattern and longevity of dressing style should not be used as pretext for the hypovitaminosis D before other factors are being examined or considered.
|fully covered||hands and face |
|Vitamin D levels||18 ng||16 ng||19 ng|
|Osteoporosis (not statistically significant)||25 %||23 %||15%|
Suspect that the fully covered women uncover themselves somewhat when private - Henry Lahore, admin of VitaminDWiki
- Overview Middle East and vitamin D
- More hijab clothing may have resulted in 6X increase in Multiple Sclerosis in Tehran – May 2013
- Concealing Clothing in Canada: half the level of vitamin D in blood – May 2012
- 70 pcnt of Saudi women were extremely vitamin D deficient, but only 40 pcnt of men – March 2012
- If heavily clothed, very little vitamin D – Dec 2012 which has the following photos