Exploring the Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cognitive Functions and Mental Health Status in Subjects Under Methadone Maintenance Treatment.
J Addict Med. 2019 May 24. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000550.
Methadone has been used for decades to treat people who are addicted to heroin and narcotic pain medicines
Search web for Methadone and Cognition 239,000 Items as of June 2019
Alzheimers-Cognition - Overview starts with
- FACT: Cognitive decline is 19X more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D levels.
- FACT: Alzheimer’s 21 % more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Alzheimer's Disease is 4X less likely if less likely if high vitamin D
- FACT: Every single risk factor listed for Alzheimer's Disease is also a risk factor for low vitamin D levels
- FACT: Elderly cognition gets worse as the elderly vitamin D levels get even lower (while in senior homes)
- OBSERVATION: Reports of increased vitamin D levels result in improved cognition
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer's Disease has been seen to halt when vitamin D was added.
- OBSERVATION: 39 vitamin D and Alz. or Cognition lntervention trials as of Sept 2018
- OBSERVATION: 2 Meta-analysis in 2012 agreed that Alzheimer's Disease. associated with low vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 50X increase in Alzheimer's while decrease in vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in 11 ways
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s cognition improved by 4,000 IU of vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Plaque removed in mice by equiv. of 14,000 IU daily
- FACT: Vitamin D is extremely low cost and has very very few side effects
- CONCLUSION: Everyone concerned about cognitive decline or Alzheimer's Disease should take vitamin D
- PREDICTION: By 2024 Omega-3 and high dose Vitamin D will be found to reverse Alzheimer's in humans
- As of 2018 that combination has worked well with Multiple Sclerosis, Sleep, and Cluster Headaches
- All items in category Cognition and vitamin D
Ghaderi A1, Rasouli-Azad M, Farhadi MH, Mirhosseini N, Motmaen M, Pishyareh E, Omidi A, Asemi Z.
Department of Addiction Studies, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran and Clinical Research Development Unit-Matini/Kargarnejad Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran (AG); University of Raparin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq (MR-A); Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran (M-HF); School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada (NM); Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran (MM); Occupational Therapy Department, Rehabilitation School, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran (EP); Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran (AO); Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran (ZA).
Vitamin D deficiency may be linked to several mental complications including cognitive deficits, depression, and anxiety in patients under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). This study was designed to explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cognitive functions and mental health parameters in subjects under MMT.
This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out among 64 patients under MMT. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either 50,000 IU vitamin D supplements (n = 32) or placebo (n = 32) every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. Cognitive functions and mental health parameters were taken at baseline and posttreatment to evaluate relevant variables.
After the 24-week intervention, compared with the placebo, serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels significantly increased in participants who received vitamin D supplements (β 14.50; 95% confidence interval CI, 13.17-15.83; P < 0.001). In addition, compared with the placebo, subjects who received vitamin D had a
- significant reduction in Iowa Gambling Task (β -6.25; 95% CI, -8.60 to -3.90; P < 0.001), and
- significant increases in Verbal Fluency Test (β 2.82; 95% CI, 0.78-4.86; P = 0.007),
- Immediate Logic Memory (β 1. 32; 95% CI, 0.27-2.37; P = 0.01),
- Reverse Digit Span (β 2.06; 95% CI, 1.18-2.94; P < 0.001) and
- visual working memory (β 0.75; 95% CI, 0.33-1.16; P = 0.001). Also, vitamin D supplementation significantly improved
- BDI (β -2.76; 95% CI, -3.97 to -1.55; P < 0.001) compared with the placebo.
When we applied Bonferroni correction, LM-Immediate (P = 0.07) became nonsignificant, and other mental health parameters did not alter.
Overall, taking 50,000 IU vitamin D supplements every 2 weeks for 24 weeks by patients under MMT had beneficial effects on cognitive functions and some mental health parameters. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.