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Metabolic Syndrome 1.4 X less likely if high vitamin D – meta-analysis April 2021

Serum vitamin D levels in relation to metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

Obes Rev. 2021 Apr 7;e13223. doi: 10.1111/obr.13223
Zahra Hajhashemy 1, Farnaz Shahdadian 1, Elham Moslemi 2, Fateme Sadat Mirenayat 1, Parvane Saneei 1

Several epidemiological studies examined the association of serum vitamin D with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the findings were inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis to quantify the association between blood vitamin D levels and MetS in adults. A systematic search up to December 2020 was conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), ISI (Web of Science), Scopus, and Google Scholar databases for epidemiological studies that assessed the relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (as the exposure) and MetS (as the outcome) in adults. Eligible cross-sectional studies were restricted to those with representative populations. Finally, 43 studies were included in the analysis (38 cross-sectional, one nested case-control, and four cohorts studies).
Combining 41 effect sizes from 38 cross-sectional studies included 298,187 general adult population revealed that the highest level of serum vitamin D, compared with the lowest level, was significantly related to a 43% decreased odds of MetS in developed countries (odds ratio [OR]: 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.65) and 40% in developing countries (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.52-0.70).
Linear dose-response analysis (including 222,175 healthy individuals and 39,308 MetS patients) revealed that each 25 nmol/L increase in serum vitamin D level was significantly associated with a 15% decreased odds of MetS (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.80-0.91); however, we found no significant nonlinear association. Meta-analysis of five prospective studies with 11,019 participants revealed no significant relation (relative risk [RR]: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.37-1.32). This meta-analysis indicated an inverse association between serum vitamin D concentrations and risk of MetS in general adult populations in cross-sectional studies in a dose-response manner. However, no significant association was found in a small number of cohorts. More prospective studies are needed to confirm the causality of this relationship.


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