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Low vitamin D while pregnant – a health emergency (Indonesia in this case) – meta-analysis May 2023

A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Indonesian pregnant women: a public health emergency

AJOG Global Reports Volume 3, Issue 2, May 2023, 100189 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xagr.2023.100189
Gilbert Sterling Octavius MD, MHM, MM 1, Vamela Adman Daleni MD 2, Glenda Angeline MD 2, Cindy Virliani MD 2

Only 12% had > 30 ng (75 nmol)

There are few in-depth investigations or meta-analyses determining the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in expectant Indonesian mothers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine this prevalence.

We searched information using the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Neliti, Indonesia Onesearch, Indonesian Scientific Journal Database, bioRxiv, and medRxiv.

The inclusion criteria included cross-sectional studies or observational studies published in any language, studying Indonesian pregnant women whose vitamin D levels were measured.

Vitamin D deficiency in this review was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L, whereas vitamin D insufficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D between 50 and 75 nmol/L. The analysis was done using Stata software with the Metaprop command.

The meta-analysis included 6 studies involving 830 pregnant women aged 27.6–30.6 years. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Indonesian pregnant women was 63% (95% confidence interval, 40–86; I2, 98.9%; P<.0001). The prevalence rates of vitamin D insufficiency and hypovitaminosis D were 25% (95% confidence interval, 16–34; I2, 83.37%; P<.01) and 78% (95% confidence interval, 60–96; I2, 96.81%; P<.01), respectively. The mean serum vitamin D level was 40.59 nmol/L (95% confidence interval, 26.04–55.13; I2, 99.57%; P<.01).

Pregnant women in Indonesia are at risk for vitamin D deficiency, which constitutes a public health issue. Possible unwanted consequences, including preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age newborns, are more likely to occur when vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is left untreated. However, more studies are needed to prove these relationships.
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Indonesia is on equator, but have dark skin. have concealing clothing, want white skin


86% Muslim

Women around the world want whiter skin

VitaminDWiki - Pregnancy category contains

859 items in Pregnancy category

 - see also

VitaminDWiki -Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D contains

0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

VitaminDWiki - 27 studies in both categories Dark Skin and Pregnancy

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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
19647 Indo women1.jpg admin 06 Jun, 2023 20:34 37.15 Kb 39
19646 Indonesia map.jpg admin 06 Jun, 2023 20:25 14.84 Kb 45
19645 Pregnant Indonesia.jpg admin 06 Jun, 2023 20:17 39.96 Kb 47
19644 Indonesia pregnant_CompressPdf.pdf PDF 2023 admin 06 Jun, 2023 20:17 440.27 Kb 18